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Posts Tagged ‘Thomas Jefferson’

Our Founding Fathers Said That?

Constitutional Convention (Granger Collecton, NY/courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/PUBLIC DOMAIN) (courtesy of SIRS Discoverer)

The United States Constitution is considered to be “the supreme law of the land.” And it has been for more than two centuries. No small feat for a document uniting the ideas of nationhood, independence, defense, general welfare, and all sorts of liberties.

This document certainly was not created alone.

Many people contributed to the development, shaping, and writing of the U.S. Constitution. Those who had the most significant impact on its outcome are considered to be the U.S. Founding Fathers (remember that this was the 18th century–women, such as Abigail Adams, influenced the Constitution, but through their husbands…a blog post for another day).

With all of the hullabaloo around the upcoming presidential election, and with all of the recent discussions on and controversies around gun rights and women’s rights and immigrants’ rights and LGBTQ rights and criminal rights and voting rights…, let’s take a listen to what some of our Founding Fathers have said about the U.S. Constitution.

First U.S. President George Washington (Gilbert Stuart/U.S. Dept. of the Interior/PUBLIC DOMAIN) (courtesy SKS)

 

“The Constitution is the guide which I never will abandon.”–George Washington (1732-1799)

George Washington is considered by many to be the “father of the country.” He was, after all, the nation’s first President. He served that office from 1789 to 1797. Prior to that, he was a general in the Revolutionary War and is considered to have played a pivotal role in leading the American Army to victory.

Our first president was known as a man of few and select words, as embodied by the above quote. He thoughtfully deemed the U.S. Constitution a “guide” to be followed, not the zenith or the ultimate truth.

Third U.S. President Thomas Jefferson (Rembrandt Peale/U.S. Dept. of the Interior/PUBLIC DOMAIN) (courtesy SKS)

 

“Whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force.”–Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States (1801-1809), was a terrible speaker but a terrific writer. He wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence, and his input was invaluable to the drafting of the U.S. Constitution.

Jefferson was a lawyer, diplomat, naturalist, architect, educator, statesman, musician, inventor, scientist, geographer…he was fluent in many languages…he supported women’s rights, free public education, and a free library system. All in all, a brilliant and cultured man. He knew government had to be kept in check, and that the general population was essential to maintaining this stability: “A little rebellion now and then is a good thing.”

“The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government–lest it come to dominate our lives and interests.”–Patrick Henry (1736-1799)

Patrick Henry was never president, but he certainly made a name for himself as an orator, lawyer, and politician. He served as first and sixth governor of Virginia, and was instrumental in opposing the Stamp Act of 1765. In fact, he may be most famous for saying, “Give me liberty, or give me death!”

This guy liked freedom.

Henry’s political priorities always aligned with affirming the general population’s rights and well-being. He was consistently against the idea of a strong central government. He initially opposed the idea of a U.S. Constitution, fearing it would jeopardize individual freedoms and state sovereignty. He only became an ardent supporter of the Constitution once the Bill of Rights was added.

Henry wanted the U.S. Constitution to serve as an “instrument” for the people, providing them with the means necessary to maintain their freedoms and hold their government accountable.

Fourth U.S. President James Madison (John Vanderlyn/U.S. Dept. of the Interior/PUBLIC DOMAIN) (courtesy SKS)

 

“Do not separate text from historical background. If you do, you will have perverted and subverted the Constitution, which can only end in a distorted, bastardized form of illegitimate government.”–James Madison (1751-1836)

James Madison, fourth president of the United States (1809-1817), is considered to be the “father of the Constitution.” He had helped write Virginia’s State Constitution, the model for the U.S. Constitution. Both are grounded in his belief that the United States’ potential would be “derived from the superior power of the people.”

Madison predicted a national crisis if no Constitution was drafted. His advocacy for creating a U.S. Constitution paved the way for the Constitutional Congress.

He understood the importance of understanding and interpreting the context in which the document was written. As the context of the living documents changes, should the Constitution?

“It is every American’s right and obligation to read and interpret the Constitution for himself.”–Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Benjamin Franklin’s words could not be more timely.

Franklin–statesman, writer, scientist, philosopher, inventor, political theorist, printer–understood that true freedom in this nation began with freedom to choose for oneself.

Franklin’s highest political office was Minister to France. But as the oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention, he had participated in significant events in American history, such as the signing of the peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.

As a participant in the signing of the Constitution, Franklin shared an observation that all hoped would be a symbol for the new country. Upon seeing the sun sitting atop George Washington’s chair at the closing of the Constitutional Convention, Franklin said: “I have the happiness to know it is a rising sun and not a setting sun.”

What are your students’ thoughts about the U.S. Constitution? Find resources in SKS and SIRS Discoverer and join us throughout the month of September as we celebrate National Constitution Month.

50th Anniversary of St. Louis’ Gateway Arch

Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MO

Gateway Arch Research Topic
via ProQuest’s eLibrary

One would think that designing the Gateway Arch would be a career-topping achievement, but the engineering triumph was the first major independent project that Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen would undertake. After Saarinen entered the 1947 architectural competition for Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, he set out to design a monument not only to Thomas Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase and the nation, but also to the modern age. For Saarinen, “The major concern was to create a monument which would have lasting significance and would be a landmark of our time…Neither an obelisk nor a rectangular box nor a dome seemed right on this site or for this purpose. But here, at the edge of the Mississippi River, a great arch did seem right.” Construction began February 12, 1963 and was completed October 28, 1965. Sadly, Saarinen did not live to see the completion of his design. He died of a brain tumor in 1961 at the age of 51. St. Louis was chosen as the site for the Arch because of its central role in the westward expansion of the United States; it was the starting point for many of the westward pioneers. Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery left on their 3-year journey from a camp just north of St. Louis.

Eero Saarinen

Eero Saarinen Research Topic via Proquest’s eLibrary

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson Research Topic via ProQuest’s eLibrary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some interesting facts: The Gateway Arch stands at a height of 630 feet, compared to the Washington Monument at 555 feet and the Statue of Liberty at 305 feet. The 60-foot heads carved on Mount Rushmore are designed to the scale of men who would stand 465 feet tall, a height that would allow such giants to walk through the Arch. During the summer months, up to 6,400 people a day visit the Arch. 16 trams or pods, each holding 5 people, take visitors on a 4-minute trip to the observation area where one can see for 30 miles on a clear day. The stainless steel arch has foundations that are sunk 60 feet into the ground, and is built to withstand earthquakes and high winds. In fact, the Arch is designed to sway up to 18 inches. The inverted, weighted catenary arch is the world’s tallest arch and the tallest monument in the Western Hemisphere.

During the 50th anniversary of the Gateway Arch, use resources from eLibrary to study both history (Westward expansion of the United States) and science (architecture and engineering) at the same time.

Research Topics:                                     Publications:

Manifest Destiny                                          Architect

Mississippi River                                         Architectural Digest

Missouri                                                        The Architectural Review

Oregon Trail                                                 Architecture; The AIA Journal

Sacagawea                                                   Engineer

 

The Library of Congress Is Born

Thomas Jefferson Building via Foter/Public Domain

“Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C.” Photo credit: Photographs in the Carol M. Highsmith Archive, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division /Foter / Public domain

Founded in 1800, the Library of Congress (LOC) is the oldest federal institution of cultural and historic resources. It also remains the world’s most extensive library, housing a collection that spans over 158 million items including books, recordings, manuscripts, music, photographs, maps and more. It is considered a cultural haven because of the many languages it represents, its unique book offerings and its large law library.

Located in Washington D.C., it has a fascinating past. The LOC started as a reference library for Congress only with a budget of $5,000 and was housed in the Capitol Building. The library was destroyed in August 1814 when invading British troops set fire to the Capitol Building.

Thomas Jefferson offered his personal collection of books to replace the original Library of Congress, and in 1815, Congress agreed to his offer. Jefferson’s collection of 6,487 books gave way to a new national library. Even with such a modest beginning, the library became a trusted source of information worldwide. Today, the Library of Congress is a valuable asset for a countless number of students, patrons, educators and the community, continuing to grow every day.

ProQuest SIRS Government Reporter offers content published by the Library of Congress and SIRS WebSelect hosts special Library of Congress exhibition websites like Exploring the Early Americas, historical online collections like American Memory and web publications like Jefferson’s Legacy. Historically speaking, the Library of Congress has always been a powerful tool for research and has evolved with technology through its website. It connects people to more than just books which is why the Library of Congress is more than just a library.

Do you have a favorite feature or offering of the Library of Congress? We’d love to know!