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Posts Tagged ‘racial discrimination’

July 1964: 50 Years of the Civil Rights Act

July 2, 2014 marks the 50th anniversary of a turning point in American civil rights history. It was on this day the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. Many consider this law the toughest civil rights statute since Reconstruction and perhaps the most significant piece of legislation of the entire twentieth century. The Act prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin. It banned racial segregation in the workplace, schools and public facilities. It protected voter rights by barring unequal registration requirements for people of color, although it did not bar all voting discrimination.

While it was originally proposed by President Kennedy in 1963, he had reservations about passing civil rights legislation. Southern legislators who controlled the Senate were opposed to it, and President John Kennedy wanted to ensure his other legislative priorities would be given attention and passage. President Kennedy believed he would have a second term to enact civil rights legislation.  His assassination in November 1963 would be the catalyst for President Lyndon Johnson, a former senator from the South, to use his political skill in working with the Senate to achieve a law long overdue even risking his own political future.

President Lyndon Johnson shakes the hand of Dr. Martin Luther King at the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Beyond the surface of the Civil Rights Act, its impact was almost immediate and its legacy varied. Strides were quickly made in regard to desegregation in public accommodations and voting rights which helped spur the Voting Rights Act of 1965.  While there remained inequities among the races, division by race and class primarily, opportunities for African Americans, and in later years Latinos, Asians and Native Americans increased.  Rep. John Lewis, a notable veteran of the Civil Rights Movement, in recalling the days of discrimination and segregation, perhaps put the impact and legacy of the law best:  “Those signs are gone, the fear is gone.  America is a better nation and we are a better people because of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.”

 

60 Years Ago: Brown v. Board of Education

Post-Brown Integrated Classroom

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”  So begins the second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence.  For African Americans, we know this was not the case, especially regarding education.  In 1952-1953, the case of a group of Topeka, Kansas parents and their children came to the U.S. Supreme Court that would challenge inequalities in education.  Sixty years later, Brown v. Board of Education remains a turning point in the fight for civil rights in the United States.

In 1896, the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson ruled constitutional the “separate but equal” doctrine with regard to racial segregation and the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  Fifty-eight years passed with “separate but equal” being the law of the land to justify discrimination based on race not only in schools but also in housing, transportation and recreation.

Thurgood Marshall together with the NAACP took the Brown case, a combination of school desegregation lawsuits, and argued it before the Supreme Court.  On May 17,Brown Celebration 1954, the Court ruled “separate but equal” unconstitutional in a 9-0 decision.  Chief Justice Earl Warren writing the opinion of the Court stated, “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”

Brown changed civil rights history.  It paved the way for good – James Meredith, Ruby Bridges – and not so good – the Little Rock integration crisis, George Wallace’s stand in the schoolhouse door.  Sixty years may sound like a long time, but the implications of Brown continue.  Take time to learn more about the Brown decision and integration of the American education system since 1954 by using eLibrary and its many resources.