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Posts Tagged ‘ProQuest’

We Are ProQuest: Jean Ward

Dexter the Very Good Goat, Jean M. Malone, Jean Ward, Children's Picture Books

Photo with permission to use from Jean Ward

We Are ProQuest: ProQuest is only as successful as its staff. The ProQuest difference is people behind-the-scenes using their skills to create products and features to provide the optimal research experience from kindergarten to post-graduate to life-long learner. We Are ProQuest features profiles of some of our talented team members. Today let’s meet Senior Product Manager, Books for the OASIS/CIS products, Jean Ward.

Jean Ward has made a name for herself as Jean M. Malone writing children’s books and has a novel in the works. Her children’s picture book, “DEXTER the very good goat” was mentioned in a ProQuest newsletter when Jean was praised for her work. While Jean has recently changed roles to become Senior Product Manager, Books for the OASIS/CIS products she also balances that job with her writing career. Jean shared with me her journey, challenges and what she dreams to accomplish in the future.

How did you come to work at ProQuest?

I came to ProQuest through the Coutts acquisition from Ingram in 2015, and it has been a very positive experience.

What is your educational/professional background?

I double majored in English (Creative Writing concentration) and Motion Pictures (Screenwriting concentration) at the University of Miami, and then after graduating I started working in a bookstore. It was a small, family run shop where half the charm was the serendipitous discovery, but the lack of Dewey Decimals or a catalog actually drove me nuts. From there I went to work in my local public library for a few years, and then I joined Ingram as an assistant cataloger, which was the perfect outlet for my organization-starved self.

While working at Ingram I went back to school to earn a Master’s of Library and Information Science at the University of Alabama, and eventually transitioned from cataloging to a collection development position within Coutts, first as a title selector and then as the department manager. Recently I left that department to become the Senior Product Manager for the OASIS product at ProQuest.

I understand you’re a writer. When did you start writing?

Gosh, I’ve been writing for about as long as I can remember. I guess I’m not embarrassed to admit that I started out as I think probably many writers do, writing fan fiction when I was a teenager (Star Trek). Then I did a heck of a lot of writing in college, and after college, I wrote my first novel, which will never see the light of day.

What do you enjoy best about writing?

That’s a really hard question! I think what I love, even though I also hate it, is the revision process, and once I learned to embrace that, it really freed me because it allowed me to write truly terrible drafts so that I could just get things out on paper and see how they worked, and then go back to them. I think the most beautiful thing about writing is how it’s like a painting, and this is what I realized a few years ago when I finally learned how to revise. It made me think of The Girl With A Pearl Earring movie, where you actually see the way Vermeer would have painted: first there is a shape. Just a shape. And then you come back and you add more textures and more colors and the shape turns into a blob. And then you come back and add another layer–and after several layers, you have this beautiful amazing piece of art. But it didn’t start out as a beautiful, rich, textured work–it started out as shapes and blobs. And I think writing is exactly the same.

How do you balance work and writing?

When you find out, you tell me. It’s basically having two jobs, right? There have been long periods of time where I really burned the candle at both ends, but I have not been very good at this lately, and by lately I really mean for about the last two years. As I have taken on greater levels of responsibility at work, I have less and less energy to devote to writing, and I go through long dry periods where I just don’t write at all. Or it comes in fits and starts which are too sporadic to be useful.

But what I have found is that the best way to write is to have a routine. If I can manage to get myself into a routine for awhile where I sit down and write for an hour or two every day, then I find it much easier to stay in that routine. But life happens, it gets in the way. We moved this year, I have a longer commute, my husband’s schedule changed, my work schedule changed–so I have not been in a routine for awhile. I’m working on getting back into one right now. I’m not really like some writers. I don’t write to stay sane like my sister does. I actually watch TV to stay sane. I write because when I don’t write, I feel very disappointed in myself.

You’ve been published. How did you get published?

Every single path is different, right? I had a screenwriting classmate in college who got a job at Penguin, and she put out a call when she became an editor–send me writing samples if you ever think you might like to write for Penguin. So I did, and one day she called me and said all her writers were busy and she needed a book about flamingos on a short deadline–I think she needed the first draft in about 10 days, could I do it? And I said “Of COURSE I can do it!” and promptly went to the library to learn everything I could about flamingos. I ended up doing 2 more books for Penguin, and what I learned is that you always say yes when presented with an opportunity, even if it’s a little bit scary.

What has been your proudest moment?

I think my proudest moment on this journey has been to do with my latest book. It is a picture book, and the text actually began as my writing sample for that Penguin editor. I loved it so much that I asked my dear friend JJ, who is an amazing young artist, to illustrate it for me, and she breathed life into it in a way that I hadn’t even imagined. Since this book wasn’t an assignment or publisher request, but was all of our own making, it has been incredibly exciting. My proudest moment was finding out how much my–let’s see–she would be something like my cousin-in-law once removed? Anyway, she is the most adorable little girl, and she is Dexter’s biggest fan. Hearing about how much she loves Dexter, how she keeps her book in a special spot in her play kitchen and how she knows all the words by heart–that is definitely my proudest moment so far. Knowing that something about the book struck a chord with her and makes her so happy.

What is a dream you have in life?

I want to continue to write picture books because they are so much fun, but my dream is to be a novelist published by a mainstream publisher. I’m currently revising my third novel, and have been for an embarrassing number of years now. I dream big–I want to touch people’s lives–especially young people–through my writing. I want to win the Printz. And then I also have this nerdy obsession with Hallmark Christmas movies, and I have several Christmas novels that I want to write–and then write the screenplay adaptations for them as Hallmark movies of my own.

Services for the Homeless at Libraries

Atrium, San Francisco Public Library

Atrium in the San Francisco Public Library [Photo courtesy of Katherine Jardine, Public Relations Officer, San Francisco Public Library]

One of the SIRS Issues Researcher Leading Issues my colleague Amy and I work on at ProQuest is Homelessness. Learning about the different challenges the homeless face on a daily basis, we wanted to know more about what is being done to help them. After some initial research, we came across the San Francisco Public Library and Leah Esguerra who was hired there as the nation’s first library social worker helping homeless patrons. Here’s what we learned from our conversation with Leah Esguerra and an infographic highlighting the different services offered for homeless patrons at some libraries.

Typical Work Day

Leah Esguerra has been a social worker at San Francisco Public Library for almost eight years (she contracts out from the San Francisco Homeless Outreach Team) and described to us how her work has evolved and changed over time. Today, she has a team of eight people, 7 are outreach workers known as Health and Safety Associates (HASAs). The HASAs are employees who have dealt with homelessness at some point in their lives. The goal is for the HASAs to link homeless patrons with outreach and resources they can use on their own. She supervises the outreach workers, who work in four shifts.

They have a visible place in the library, known as The Spot where patrons can check in and up with the HASAs. In addition to working with the outreach workers, Esguerra does walkthroughs and acts as a consultant for staff in dealing with situations that arise with patrons. She answers questions about social services, behavioral issues, and mental health. Some days, she sees as many as 15-30 people.

The library also works to establish community partnerships with Veteran’s Affairs, Lava Mae  (a service providing mobile showers for the homeless) and others.

The Role of Health and Safety Associates (HASAs)

The HASAs do outreach in the bathrooms to find people who are inappropriately using the bathrooms (for example, sleeping in the stalls or bathing) and use their own experience as formerly homeless to help and to tell them about places they can go to for help. The HASAs provide inspiration and patrons are drawn to them because of relatable experiences.

Some of the original HASAs have moved on, continuing to grow in their line of work. One is in civil service and another is now a senior case manager.

Biggest Challenges

Challenges include the housing crisis in the Bay area. Esguerra’s original position 8 years ago was tied to finding housing. She would link homeless patrons with single room occupancies. Now, finding housing is a tougher issue. Finding housing is possible, but it often takes more than a year. They went from 400 to 30+ available rooms. She also said she has little access to these rooms and the rooms are not solely for library use. Another challenge presented itself with displacement among the elderly.

Rewards of the Job

People will come back to Esguerra after many years and thank her for her help. They tell her they are working and still have a house or that she’s helped them deal with mental health issues. She gets calls during the holidays from people she’s helped as well.

Esguerra said the HASAs are seen a safety net too. Staff will first call the HASAs if homeless patrons are causing a disturbance instead of calling security.

Best Practices for Homeless Outreach Programs

It is essential for libraries to have social services and/or social workers. Libraries without the means available to hire a social worker can partner with universities or create other partnerships with community organizations. Social service programs in libraries are great for both staff and patrons. Esguerra told us how the homeless have said the library is their sanctuary. She and her team at the library consider themselves ambassadors. They make the homeless feel included in the community. Having HASAs work at the library brings a different face of homelessness to the staff. The HASAs work very hard and are really good at what they do. They humanize the homeless and raise the level of compassion and understanding.

“Libraries are the community living room.” — Leah Esguerra

Esguerra says other libraries who are interested in starting a social services program should definitely give it a try. She said there are many ways to accomplish it.

Today, the movement is international. The San Francisco Public Library has inspired libraries and institutions elsewhere around the world – including Korea, Japan, and Australia – to implement their own social service programs.

Libraries and Homelessness [Infographic]

Is This the Ugliest Campaign Ever? Not So Fast…

With the presidential election a mere one week away, the debates concluded, and with name-calling such as “Crooked Hillary” and “Deplorables” still being thrown around as often as a post-debate tweet, you might wonder whether this election holds the distinction of being the most contentious and dirtiest campaign ever. For many people living today, that answer would most certainly ring true. But as Lee Corso on College GameDay on ESPN would say, not so fast, my friend!

In the presidential election of 1800, founding fathers Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, who were good friends before running against each other, would have made men like Donald Trump gasp in shock at their electioneering tactics. Jefferson’s detractors accused him of being “a mean-spirited, low-lived fellow, the son of a half-breed Indian squaw, sired by a Virginia Mulatto father … raised wholly on hoe-cake made of coarse-ground Southern corn, bacon and hominy, with an occasional change of fricasseed bullfrog.” Jefferson was probably the first to hire a hatchet man (James Callendar) to do his dirty work, who characterized John Adams as a “hideous hermaphroditical character, which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman.” One Adams supporter suggested that if Jefferson was elected president “we would see our wives and daughters the victims of legal prostitution.”

The negative campaigning didn’t stop there. Equally appalling was the campaign of 1828 when proponents of John Quincy Adams called his opponent Andrew Jackson a cannibal and a murderer, accusing Jackson of summarily executing six militiamen during the Creek War of 1813. Conversely, Jackson supporters called Adams a pimp for Czar Alexander I while Adams was minister of Russia.

In the election of 1884 between Grover Cleveland and James Blaine, the mudslinging included an illegitimate child and anti-Catholicism sentiments. Democrats portrayed James Blaine as a liar, exclaiming “Blaine! Blaine! The Continental Liar from the State of Maine!” For their part, Republicans claimed in campaign posters and political cartoons that Cleveland had an illegitimate child. Cleveland later admitted that he was giving child support to a woman in Buffalo, New York.

It’s probably safe to say that after the election is over, whoever has won, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump probably won’t be best buddies. But it’s well worth noting that after the ruthless campaigning for the presidency in 1800, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson once again became good friends. Both died on July 4th, 1826 within hours of each other, and Adams’ last words were said to be “Thomas Jefferson survives.” In fact, Jefferson had died five hours earlier.

eLibrary has updated its U.S. Presidential Election, 2016 Research Topic with new up-to-date articles on the debates and polls, along with accompanying graphs.

Be sure to check out more of the past U.S. Presidential election Research Topics and other resources below.

Other related Research Topics:

Other Resources:
Presidential Elections
The Great American History Fact-Finder (Reference Book)

Elections
The Reader’s Companion to American History (Reference Book)

Haunted Libraries

My coworker, Jaclyn Rosansky, and I blogged about unusual things you can borrow from libraries. While researching that post, I came across many libraries that host Halloween costume exchanges. I also read about libraries that hold Halloween parties with ghost stories and spooky decorations. With Halloween fast approaching (and because it happens to be my favorite holiday), I wondered what other spooky things involve libraries. Would I find haunted libraries and, if so, where are they and how many are there? To see what I learned, click on the interactive map below or view it in a larger, presentation mode here: Spooky Libraries.

If you know of a haunted library in one of the states in which I couldn’t find any, please let me know in the comments section at the end of this post. Thank you, and Happy Halloween!

Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta

This month, the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta is celebrated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The festival began in 1972 and is celebrated during the first weeks of October. Here are some fun facts about the festival.

Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta

Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
By Eric Ward from Provo, UT, USA [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

* When the event began in 1972, there were just 13 balloons featured in the festival. Now there are over 500 hot air balloons in the festival!

* The event is held for 9 days.

* People from over 20 different countries participate in the event.

* In recent years, over 80,000 people have attended the event.

* Besides the wonderful hot air balloons at the festival, visitors can also enjoy music, food, and other educational activities.

* If you plan in advance, you can book a ride on a hot air balloon during the festival!

Teachers, direct your students to SIRS Discoverer to learn more about this festival and about hot air balloons. Here are some resources to get you started:

Floating Festival

How Stuff Works: How Hot Air Balloons Work

Hot air balloons

Official website of the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta

Libraries on the Go: Trains, Planes… and Camels?

little-library-1351491_1280

Photo of a Little Free Library by LisetteBrodey [Public Domain], via Pixabay

When I think of a library, I picture the traditional services of a brick-and-mortar library, such as my neighborhood public library that I am fortunate enough to frequent. However, not all libraries are housed inside buildings. After reading Jennifer Genetti’s Little Free Libraries, which detailed the worldwide movement of miniature curbside libraries, I wondered what other nontraditional ways librarians and other bibliophiles are sharing their books with their communities? More specifically, I was curious as to what types of mobile libraries exist today.

A search on the Internet and via ProQuest (i.e., by conducting a Boolean search using the terms “mobile libraries” and “library outreach” and also by searching types of library outreach, such as bookmobiles) revealed many unique ways libraries and other organizations and institutions reach out to disadvantaged and underserved populations who don’t have easy access to reading materials. Additionally, librarians and others are finding ways to reach out to those who are on the go, such as commuters.

Five Examples of Unconventional Libraries

Books on the L

Person on train platform holding a book from the Books on the L program in Chicago, Illinois (Photo used with permission by Chicago Ideas.)

Riding on a Train

Lucky commuters riding on Chicago’s “L” transit system can take, read, and share books of all genres in an initiative launched in 2015 by Chicago Ideas called Books on the L.  The books can be identified by yellow stickers that include the words “Take it. Read it. Return it.” L train riders are encouraged to take a picture of books they find and enjoy and post them on social media with the hashtag #BooksOnTheL.

Waiting for a Plane 

airport

Photo of the Free Library of Philadelphia outpost in the Philadelphia International Airport. (Photo used with permission by the Free Library of Philadelphia)

Passengers waiting to board their flight at the Philadelphia International Airport can read and relax in an outpost of the Free Library of Philadelphia. The library outpost, created in 2013, offers comfortable lounge chairs and free Wi-Fi to access to digital content, including podcasts and audiobooks.

Delivered on a Boat

For the past four decades, those living on one of the remote islands around the town of Pargas in Western Finland have been getting their books delivered by the Public Library of Pargas’s book boat service staffed by library volunteers. Books are delivered to patrons of all ages during summer months.

Street Books

Diana Rempe, street librarian, with Street Books’ new bike library. (Photo used with permission by Street Books, Portland, OR).

On a Bicycle 

Street Books, founded in 2011 by Laura Moulton in Portland, Oregon, is a bicycle-powered mobile library that enables the homeless to check out library books. Patrons do not have to provide proof of address or identification to receive a library card.

On a Camel 

The Kenya National Library Service has been using camels to reach nomadic populations in North Eastern Kenya since 1985. In addition to books, the camels carry tents and mats for patrons to use when reading in the field.

Camel

Camel by OpenRoadPR [Public Domain], via Pixabay

Share with Us!

Do you work or volunteer at a mobile library? If so, tell us what type of mobile library and what you like best about it in the comments below or Tweet us at #ProQuest!

First Sales of Coca-Cola: May 8, 1886

The first glass of Coca-Cola was served on May 8, 1886, in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. John Stith Pemberton was a physician and pharmacist who made and sold medicines, photographic chemicals, and cosmetic products in his state-of-the-art laboratories. Among these were a popular perfume called Sweet Southern Bouquet, and a patent medicine known as French Wine Coca. It was advertised as a “nerve tonic, a mental aid, a headache remedy, and a cure for morphine addiction.” The product contained wine and coca leaves from South America and was served at pharmacy counters.

Old Coca-Cola Sign [public domain] via Library of Congress

Old Coca-Cola Sign [public domain] via Library of Congress

In 1886, Atlanta experimented with an early prohibition law. Since Pemberton’s drink was made with wine, he needed to change the formula. He experimented in his home laboratory to create a new drink that was sweetened with sugar instead of wine. By May 1886, his new formula was ready. Pemberton carried a jug of syrup down the street to Jacobs’ Pharmacy, where it was sold as a soda fountain drink for a nickel a glass. The beverage was later named “Coca Cola”–from its two “medicinal” ingredients: extract of coca leaves and kola nuts. Although the name was used in the marketplace starting in 1886, the Coca-Cola trademark was not registered in the U.S. Patent Office until January 31, 1893.

Ticket for free glass of Coca-Cola, believed to be the first coupon ever. <br/> By Coca-Cola [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Ticket for a free glass of Coca-Cola, believed to be the first coupon ever.
By Coca-Cola [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Dr. Pemberton never realized the potential of his invention. In failing health, he gradually sold portions of his business to various partners. In 1888, just before his death, he sold his remaining interest in Coca-Cola to Asa Griggs Candler, an Atlanta banker, real estate developer and manufacturer of patent medicines. Candler’s genius was in marketing and promotion. In order to get customers to try the product, he created the first coupon, which offered a complimentary glass of Coca-Cola at any fountain. Between 1894 and 1913 an estimated 8.5 million drinks free drinks had been served, and by 1895 Coca-Cola was being sold in every state.

An Original 1915 Contour Coca-Cola Prototype Bottle Designed by Earl R. Dean. By Gavinmacqueen [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons

An Original 1915 Contour Coca-Cola Prototype Bottle Designed by Earl R. Dean. By Gavinmacqueen [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons

Consumer demand increased even further in the summer of 1894 when the first Coca-Cola was bottled in Vicksburg, Mississippi. This ultimately led to another brilliant innovation–the unique and iconic bottle. Before refrigeration, soft drinks were kept in coolers of ice. Competitors used similar bottles, and the paper labels often fell off as they soaked in ice water, so consumers often couldn’t distinguish the real thing. So in 1915, the company asked bottling partners to design a new bottle.

In the design brief, they called for A bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was.The winning design was submitted by the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana. Ironically, it was mistakenly based on the shape of a cocoa pod, which is NOT one of the ingredients of Coca-Cola.  The naturally occurring minerals in the sandstone of the local cliffs gave the glass bottle its distinctive green color.

If you want to find out more about the history of this iconic American beverage, view the ProQuest eLibrary Research Topic page on Coca Cola, or visit these websites available on SIRS WebSelect:

 

Star Wars Day: May the 4th Be with You

Lego Star Wars Stormtroopers

Lego Star Wars Stormtroopers by Andrew Martin [Public Domain], via Pixabay

Since the Beginning: Librarians and Star Wars

The first organized Star Wars Day celebration occurred on May 4, 2011, at the Toronto Underground Cinema in Canada. However, librarians — experts in tapping into popular culture as a way of reaching out to their patrons — have been holding Star Wars events long before this date.

Shortly after the film series began in 1977, libraries began offering Star Wars-themed reading programs, film screenings, children’s shows and other events. For example, a quick search in ProQuest’s Historical Newspapers reveals that, in the summer of 1978, La Mesa Library of the San Diego, California, County Library, offered children a space-theme series with a film screening of Hardware Wars, a Star Wars spoof.

ProQuest Historical Newspaper article screencap

Screencap of a ProQuest Historical Newspaper article from the July 13, 1978, edition of the Los Angeles Times

Here’s another ProQuest’s Historical Newspaper article from 1979,  detailing a Star Wars reading program for children by Terryville Public Library in Terryville, Connecticut.

star wars reading program

Screencap of a ProQuest Historical Newspaper article from the June 26, 1979, edition of The Hartford Courant

Star Wars Day in Libraries Today

West Regional Library Staff Celebrate Star Wars

West Regional Library Staff Pose with a Stormtrooper. (Photo used with permission by Wake County Public Libraries, Raleigh, NC)

star wars pancake

Yummy Darth Vader Pancake made with PancakeBot. (Photo used with permission by Xenia Community Library)

Librarians and libraries everywhere continue to offer a host of Star Wars programs and events. Here are three such happenings going on:

Cameron Village Regional Library Staff Celebrate Star Wars

Cameron Village Regional Library Staff and a Stormtrooper. (Photo used with permission by Wake County Public Libraries, Raleigh, NC.)

Moraga Library in Moraga, California, is hosting a Star Wars Day event for kids and teens from 4:00 – 6:00 pm today. Event goers, who are encouraged to come costumed as a favorite Star Wars character, can make origami Star Wars figures, watch a movie and more.

Wake County Public Libraries in Raleigh, North Carolina, are having a Star Wars Fest for all ages at Cameron Village Library, North Regional Library, West Regional Library,and other libraries across Wake County.  The festivities will include a screening of The Clone Wars, crafts, activities, and Star-Wars themed books. Some libraries will be holding events later in the week. Check out the website for registration and information.

Xenia Community Library in Xenia, Ohio, is offering an assortment of Star Wars crafts and activities from 4:00-5:00 pm today. According to Head Librarian Kevin Delecki, they will be making buttons, creating Death Stars with cupcake liners and coffee filters, and designing Star Wars-themed pancakes with their PancakeBot (You can read more about PancakeBot here: PancakeBot producing food, opportunities).

Star Wars Origami

Star Wars Origami. (Photo used with permission by Moraga Library, Moraga, CA.)

Activities, Party Ideas & Lesson Plans

Whether you’re a teacher or a librarian (or both!), here are six links to Star Wars-themed activities, party ideas and lesson plans perfect for Star Wars Day, Star Wars Reads Day or any time throughout the year.

Lesson Plan | Teaching ‘Star Wars’ With The New York Times

Library-Star Wars Reads Day Party Ideas

NASA: Star Wars Day Shareables

Star Wars in the Classroom

Star Wars Program Ideas

Star Wars Reads Day Program Ideas

 Fun Facts

* The Star Wars character Maz Kanata, introduced in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens, is based on a high school English teacher named Rose Gilbert.

* Diehard fans continue their celebrations on May 5th, Revenge of the Fifth Day, a play on Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. On this day, fans release their inner Sith and celebrate the Dark Side.

*May the force be with you” was first uttered by General Jan Dodonna to the rebel troops in Star Wars: Episode IV A New Hope.

* Star Wars featured a librarian, Jedi Master Jocasta Nu, in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack Of The Clones (2002) and in the video game adaption of Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge Of The Sith (2005).

* Historians at the British Library’s Medieval Manuscripts Department revealed a Yoda-like image in a medieval manuscript of canon law now known as the Smithfield Decretals.

Share with Us!

Does your library or classroom hold Star Wars Day events or activities? If so, let us know what you’re doing in the comments below or Tweet us at #ProQuest!

Leading Issue: School Uniforms

Editors for ProQuest SIRS Issues Researcher review customer usage of our database on a monthly basis. Inevitably, School Uniforms is among the most searched subject headings and the most viewed pro/con Leading Issues, and this pattern has held true for many years. School uniforms and school dress codes are issues that students are personally interested in and passionate about.

Minis: A Maximum School Worry

“Minis: A Maximum School Worry” by Irv Bubleigh (Los Angeles Times) via ProQuest SIRS Issues Researcher

The School Uniforms Timeline in SIRS Issues Researcher highlights some of the history of this issue. Although students have long rebelled against dress codes that prohibited trendy hair styles and fashion, the 1960s brought increased demands for the right of individual self-expression. Historical newspaper articles like Minis: A Maximum School Worry (see image at right) and OK’s Dress Code for Teens highlight some of the fashion trends of the day and the steps that school administrators took to regulate them.

The 1970s ushered in more student rebellion against restrictions on hair styles (Hair Raises Growing Concern Among Human Rights Groups) and the right of girls to wear pants to school (Girls in Pants Defy School’s Code on Dress).

The push for school uniforms in public schools intensified in the 1990s as school districts sought to limit gang influences in school and reduce crime. President Bill Clinton urged schools to adopt school uniform policies in his 1996 State of the Union Address as a way to keep teens “from killing each other over designer jackets.”

The debate over whether school uniforms have improved the climate in schools and influenced more positive behavior in students is still a matter of debate today for school districts, parents and students. One thing is for certain, though—students will always rebel against restrictions on their freedom of expression, and they can rely on Issues Researcher to provide them with the articles that support their point of view.

The 2016 Presidential Election Is Gearing Up

By this time next year, a new president will have been sworn into office. Will it be Donald Trump or Ted Cruz? Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders? Will a dark horse emerge from the Republican Party? Has election fatigue set in yet? Are you ready for it to be over?

The campaign for a new president seems to start earlier every election cycle. And although Ted Cruz was officially the first candidate to throw his hat into the ring just last March, his speech and posturing, along with incessant media speculation, started well before his announcement. And he surely was not the only one. Hillary Clinton did not announce her candidacy until April last year, but speculation about her candidacy had been rampant right after President Obama was inaugurated for his second term.

One week from today, the first primaries and caucuses will begin the long, arduous process of seating a new president, beginning with Iowa on February 1st, and then New Hampshire the following week.

The process of electing a president begins with narrowing the field of candidates through individual state primaries and caucuses leading up to the Republican and Democratic national conventions in July. Unless something unexpected happens, expect the field of candidates to narrow considerably after Iowa and New Hampshire.

State primaries, like New Hampshire’s, are typical elections by voters, where the general public go to the polls to cast secret ballots. Unlike New Hampshire, a caucus like Iowa’s is a system of state-wide local gatherings where voters decide which candidate they will support and to select delegates to represent their state at the national convention. Historically, caucuses were the most common way of electing party candidates. They recall  a day when up or down votes were cast by cigar-chomping delegates in smoke-filled halls who would call out yea or nay their nominees of choice. Today, most states hold primaries, with only 10 states holding caucuses.

After Iowa and New Hampshire, the caucuses and primaries of Nevada and South Carolina at the end of February, respectively, will lead to Super Tuesday on March 1, where 14 states (and the territory of American Somoa) will cast their votes. Typically, by the time all of the primaries and caucuses have ended in June, a candidate from each party will have emerged as their respective nominee, and it will be on to Philadelphia, where the Democratic Party will hold their national convention, and to Cleveland, which hosts the Republican Party’s convention.

eLibrary has a dedicated selection of Research Topics focused on current and past presidential elections that are good resources for you social studies and government classes. We have an active, updated U.S. Presidential Election, 2016 Research Topic that will help you keep tabs on the current campaign with profiles of each current and former candidates, polls and surveys, political issues and analyses, and primary updates to each current campaign. eLibrary also has Research Topics of past presidential elections (see below), along with a ProQuest Research Topic Guide on elections in the United States here.

Below are more Research Topic resources for your research and discovery: