Posts Tagged ‘inventions’
The first glass of Coca-Cola was served on May 8, 1886, in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. John Stith Pemberton was a physician and pharmacist who made and sold medicines, photographic chemicals, and cosmetic products in his state-of-the-art laboratories. Among these were a popular perfume called Sweet Southern Bouquet, and a patent medicine known as French Wine Coca. It was advertised as a “nerve tonic, a mental aid, a headache remedy, and a cure for morphine addiction.” The product contained wine and coca leaves from South America and was served at pharmacy counters.
In 1886, Atlanta experimented with an early prohibition law. Since Pemberton’s drink was made with wine, he needed to change the formula. He experimented in his home laboratory to create a new drink that was sweetened with sugar instead of wine. By May 1886, his new formula was ready. Pemberton carried a jug of syrup down the street to Jacobs’ Pharmacy, where it was sold as a soda fountain drink for a nickel a glass. The beverage was later named “Coca Cola”–from its two “medicinal” ingredients: extract of coca leaves and kola nuts. Although the name was used in the marketplace starting in 1886, the Coca-Cola trademark was not registered in the U.S. Patent Office until January 31, 1893.
Dr. Pemberton never realized the potential of his invention. In failing health, he gradually sold portions of his business to various partners. In 1888, just before his death, he sold his remaining interest in Coca-Cola to Asa Griggs Candler, an Atlanta banker, real estate developer and manufacturer of patent medicines. Candler’s genius was in marketing and promotion. In order to get customers to try the product, he created the first coupon, which offered a complimentary glass of Coca-Cola at any fountain. Between 1894 and 1913 an estimated 8.5 million drinks free drinks had been served, and by 1895 Coca-Cola was being sold in every state.
Consumer demand increased even further in the summer of 1894 when the first Coca-Cola was bottled in Vicksburg, Mississippi. This ultimately led to another brilliant innovation–the unique and iconic bottle. Before refrigeration, soft drinks were kept in coolers of ice. Competitors used similar bottles, and the paper labels often fell off as they soaked in ice water, so consumers often couldn’t distinguish the real thing. So in 1915, the company asked bottling partners to design a new bottle.
In the design brief, they called for “A bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was.” The winning design was submitted by the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana. Ironically, it was mistakenly based on the shape of a cocoa pod, which is NOT one of the ingredients of Coca-Cola. The naturally occurring minerals in the sandstone of the local cliffs gave the glass bottle its distinctive green color.
If you want to find out more about the history of this iconic American beverage, view the ProQuest eLibrary Research Topic page on Coca Cola, or visit these websites available on SIRS WebSelect:
- The Coca-Cola Bottle: An American Icon at 100
- Fifty Years of Coca-Cola Television Advertisements
- The History of Coca-Cola
- John Stith Pemberton (1831-1888)
Inventions are the ultimate expression of creativity that offer real contributions to the world. And studying inventors is a great way to teach students the practical value of expressing and harnessing their creativity! Let’s take a look at some inventors and their innovations.
Many people are familiar with some of America’s most famous inventors–Alexander Graham Bell (telephone), Eli Whitney (cotton gin), Thomas Edison (light bulb) and Orville and Wilbur Wright (airplane). Two of America’s Founding Fathers were also prolific inventors: Benjamin Franklin (bifocals, lightning rod and many others) and President Thomas Jefferson (iron plow), who was also the first administrator of the American patent system when the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office was founded in 1790. Abraham Lincoln is the only U.S. president to hold a patent for an invention. He invented a tool to lift riverboats stuck on sandbars, and received Patent #6,469 on May 22, 1849.
Here are a few lesser-known but equally important American inventors, and the contributions they made:
Katharine Blodgett: The first woman to be hired as a scientist at General Electric invented non-reflective or ‘invisible’ glass in 1938. The invention became very useful in the photographic, optics, and automotive industries and in consumer products such as picture frames and camera lenses.
Jack Kilby: In July of 1958, the Texas Instruments engineer conceived and built the first integrated circuit (microchip). Ten years later, Kilby also helped build the first popular machine to make widespread use of the chip–the hand held calculator.
Theodore Maiman: On May 16, 1960, the physicist working at Hughes Aircraft Company shined a light on a synthetic ruby crystal and invented the first functioning LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) in the world.
Stephanie Kwolek: One of the few women chemists at DuPont in the 1960s, her work led to the development of Kevlar, a fiber best known for its use in bullet-resistant vests.
ProQuest SIRS Discoverer is a multidisciplinary database for elementary and middle school learners and educators. The Spotlight of the Month covers timely, curriculum-related topics including: an Events Calendar that features notable birthdays, holidays and anniversaries; a Visual Literacy feature that offers a highly-visual graphic with corresponding critical thinking questions; and In the News highlights an important current issue with an age-appropriate article and graphic to stimulate thought and discussion.
To learn more about inventors and their inventions, check out the all-new ProQuest SIRS Discoverer’s Spotlight of the Month for August.
We may not normally think of inventors and inventions in our day-to-day lives, but what would we do without them? Things we take for granted, like matches, paper, and odometers? Each one has a story. Each one was invented by someone, somewhere, and has made our lives easier.
Your students may wonder…who did invent matches? Well, an American pharmacist named John Walker accidentally discovered matches in 1826. And what about paper? More than 2000 years ago, a Chinese man named Cai Lun created paper. And odometers…who invented the first one? Turns out it was Benjamin Franklin!
Every invention has a story that students may want to investigate further. Like what is the history of the computer? Who was the first to use a cell phone? Who invented the windshield wiper? Most people know that penicillin was an accidental discovery, but what other inventions were accidents, or even mistakes?
August is National Inventors Month, a great time to delve into curiosities about inventors and inventions. SKS is full of stories of innovation and creativity, highlighted in this month’s SKS Spotlight of the Month. Students will learn a bit about National Inventors Month and find articles on inventors and inventions. They can even quiz themselves on the invention of windshield wipers. Perhaps they will become inspired and you will have some aspiring inventors in the classroom!