Posts Tagged ‘engineering’
Engineering is the science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in structures, devices, machines, and products. An engineer is an individual who specializes in one of the many branches of engineering.
There has been a lot of talk about in recent years about emphasizing STEM/STEAM in schools to help the U.S. fill jobs in many technical fields. One front in this effort is National Engineers Week, which in 2017 is February 19-25. Quoting from the website of DiscoverE, the organization behind it, National Engineers Week is intended to “Celebrate how engineers make a difference in our world; Increase public dialogue about the need for engineers; Bring engineering to life for kids, educators, and parents.” The site has activities, videos and other resources to help educators expose students to engineering concepts and career paths.
Teachers, eLibrary also has you covered. Of course, students and educators can search the database for lots of interesting articles, websites, transcripts and more relating to the various branches of engineering. But we also offer lots of Research Topics on specific topics in the sciences. They can be discovered while searching (look for drop-down lists while typing in search terms–many of the items here will return a Research Topic at the top of the results) and by browsing the list of all RTs. Here is a small sampling of relevant RTs to get your students started in exploring the impact of engineers and considering educational and career paths in the sciences:
Computer Software Engineer
Golden Gate Bridge
I-35W Bridge Collapse
One World Trade Center
Three Gorges Dam
As professionals in the field of education, we all know the term STEM. This is a movement that exposes students to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. It promotes the teaching of these disciplines’ theories and content with a hands-on learning approach. The goal is not only to provide students with a deep, multidisciplinary understanding but to foster understanding of STEM concepts in the real world.
If a letter were added to the STEM acronym, what would the best choice be? In this video, Harvard University education professor Howard Gardner has a definitive answer: “I have no hesitation in saying we need to add the letter A….An education devoid of arts…is an empty, half-brain kind of education.”
To the point.
In that same video, Yale Child Study Center lecturer Erika Christakis isolates perhaps the core reason that adding the Arts to STEM education is so important: “The arts hav[e] something really essential to say about the human condition, just as science does.”
Let’s First Look at STEM.
We are humans living in a rapidly developing society. In no point in recorded human history has there been as many innovative technologies bringing people together. The disciplines represented in STEM—Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math—are integral to the technologies we use every day—and the tools we will use tomorrow. As stated in the State Idaho Department of Education’s What Is STEM Education?, “Math is the language; Science and Engineering are the processes for thinking; all this leads to Innovation.”
Young people—students—have known no other world. It is in all of our best interest to teach, encourage, and support them in a STEM environment.
So Why STEAM?: Arts and the Human Condition
Knowing and understanding the significance of STEM in our schools may not, at first glance, lead us to recognize the significance of adding an A to this multidisciplinary approach to education.
So we must ask: Exactly what do the arts add to our lives?
Consider what the arts encompass. Music, painting, sculpting, theater, literature, architecture, fashion, and so much more. Just as new technologies bring us together and help create our shared experiences, the arts span time to connect us with each other and ourselves. Consider briefly Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. How many people have viewed this painting across the centuries and have been moved by its beauty and brilliance? Across time and cultures, Mona Lisa created a shared, communal experience that impacted 16th-century viewers in much the same way is it does today. An encounter that becomes both a personal and shared experience.
In fact, at the foundation of all artistic endeavors are creativity, personal experience, and shared experience. It is the same with newfound technologies. Why is this important? Consider what Mae Jemison—an astronaut, doctor, art collector, and dancer—had to say on the topic in this transcript of her 2009 TED Talk on teaching arts and science:
“The difference between science and the arts is not that they are different sides of the same coin, even, or even different parts of the same continuum, but rather they’re manifestations of the same thing….The arts and sciences are avatars of human creativity. It’s our attempt as humans to build an understanding of the universe, the world around us….[S]cience provides an understanding of a universal experience, and arts provides a universal understanding of a personal experience.”
STEAM in Action
Creativity, personal experience, and shared experience are evident in stories and videos of STEAM in action. When creative writing is incorporated as the A in this Science of Superheroes Lesson, students are able to make connections between the science of flight—which was the STEM component of the lesson—and creating a superhero character and story, which was the A component of the lesson. The video highlights the many layers of involvement and collaboration STEAM can engender.
Math concepts, such as number lines, counting, and fractions, are merged seamlessly with interactive theater play in Staging STEM, a video that also conveys the joy students attain when engaging in STEAM activities. The personal and shared experiences, generated by both personal and communal creativity, become essential to and integrated with the learning experience.
Education should be exciting, engaging, uplifting, and inspiring…and it should provide an outlet for creativity and both personal and shared experiences. The multidisciplinary STEAM educational model certainly is an approach worth exploring.
Explore more about STEM and STEAM in this infographic from the University of Florida:
Find more education infographics on e-Learning Infographics
Libraries across the country are celebrating Halloween with spooky stories, devilish decorations, and clever costumes. Some are even adding an educational twist to the festivities through the use of enriching Halloween STEAM activities.
What is STEAM?
STEAM is an acronym that stands for the integration of an A for the arts into STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) learning. STEAM activities help equip kids with essential 21st-century skills that will help prepare them for the job market. The creative arts component — the “A” — in STEAM activities can engage students and spark interest in science and technology. STEAM is especially useful for helping students develop skills that are necessary to prepare for creative industries, including digital games, software, design, and marketing. However, research reveals the importance for all employees, not just those in creative industries, to demonstrate creativity in the workforce.
Libraries to Inspire You
Are you working on a STEAM Halloween project and need a little inspiration? The libraries below caught our attention for adding STEAM to their Halloween.
Today (October 26), middle school and high school kids will be creating 3D pumpkins from 3:00 to 5:00 at the main library. Sarah Butt, the library associate we contacted at the Champaign Public Library in Champaign, Illinois, explained that she created a pumpkin template in a program called Sculptris. The kids are then able to use the tools and create faces for their pumpkins. Once they are finished, the files can be printed on the 3D printer and ready for the kids from the middle school next door to pick up.Santa Monica Public Library (SMPL):
SMPL (Yes, the very same library we blogged about that has a summer beach library!) is also holding STEAM events at their Ocean Park and Fairview branches.
Also today, in connection with Star Wars Reads, SMPL’s Ocean Park branch is holding a Star Wars STEAM program from 3:30 to 4:30 for kids and teens. Participants are encouraged to wear costumes at the event.
Youth librarian Julia Casas, who is coordinating the event, has planned several activity stations that will give kids the chance to explore science concepts at their own pace. Among the activities are an “Ewok Launcher” (marshmallow launcher), which helps kids to learn about force, motion and gravity, and a “Rescue a Jedi from Carbonite” (lego minifigs trapped inside a baking soda mixture), which explores chemical reactions.
Children’s librarian Jennifer Boyce let us know that on October 31, from 4:00 to 5:00 p.m., the Fairview Branch will be featuring a program, “STEAM Craft: Glow-in-the-Dark Slime,” for children ages four and up. According to Ms. Boyce, the program will explore science concepts (in this case, chemistry) in a “fun, unstructured way.” Fairview’s Halloween STEAM event is part of their monthly STEAM programs, which in the past have included events such as a DIY Girls Club that focused on creative electronics and a “Build with Minecraft” program.
Children’s librarian Michelle Zimmermann of North Mankato Taylor Library in North Mankato, Minnesota, hosted a spooky science lab for their Halloween STEAM event, which was held on October 20th. The event, for ages eight to 12, was part of a monthly program, STEAM Rollers.
The mad scientists — some of whom had an evil laugh down perfectly — learned how sound is made with vibrations by making eerie sound devices with plastic cups, yarn, paper clips and water. They also made slime to learn about chemical and physical properties and examined how using different ratios changed the composition of the material they were making. The third activity involved making pumpkin lava lamps and dealt with the concepts of polar and non polar molecules. Kids also learned about how oil and water don’t mix. According to Ms. Zimmermann, the lava lamps seemed to make the biggest impression on the young scientists.
More Halloween STEAM Activities
Still looking for inspiration? Below are five spooktacular links you can use to incorporate STEAM into your Halloween event:
- Pumpkin Geoboard
- Pumpkin Optical Illusion
- Batwing Challenge
- Witch-Inspired Salt Crystal Science
- Spider Web Science
Special Guest Post
And be sure to check back tomorrow for another wicked STEAM/STEM post with featured blogger Dawn Treude. The Library Assistant in Youth Services will explore the Halloween activities at the Scottsdale Public Library. She will be discussing how to create science-based projects by using everyday items with a spooky theme.
If you’ve implemented a Halloween STEAM activity in your classroom or library, let us know what you’re doing in the comments section below or tweet us at #ProQuest.
Educational interpretations and implementations of STEM–an acronym for the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics–are as varied as the fields of study themselves. Only one thing is clear: the general consensus of educators and educational professionals is that STEM education can provide enormous benefits for students.
How could it not? In 2009, the Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) report showed that U.S. high-school students were ranked 18th in math scores and 13th in science scores. Thirty-four nations participated, so these results were troubling. So troubling, in fact, that–in seeming response to the PISA rankings–the White House issued numerous reports on the significance of STEM education and allocated funding toward STEM initiatives and programs. In 2010, President Obama set a goal of increasing teachers’ and students’ proficiency in STEM fields of study.
So the question became…how? There are, of course, no easy answers. Possible solutions continue to be pondered, discussed, argued, and carried out in classrooms. Some things have worked, others haven’t. Thus is the evolution of education.
We at ProQuest applaud the efforts toward comprehensive STEM education and celebrate the national attention it has engendered. One goal of STEM education is to instill a sense of curiosity and exploration in students. This goal is one shared by ProQuest and its K-12 products.
Join us this summer in celebration of STEM education and its practice and growth in the United States. STEM disciplines are prominently featured on SIRS Discoverer–our product for young researchers–in its Science topic tree and in Science Fair Explorer. SIRS Issues Researcher offers a number of STEM-related topics in its Leading Issues database, such as Alternative Energy Sources, Biomedical Technology, Genetic Engineering, Nuclear Energy, Ozone Depletion, Space Exploration and Travel, and Technology. Click on any of these topics for up-to-date articles and information. And in the SIRS Discoverer Spotlight of the Month for June, Summer Science Projects, we encourage students to see the science, technology, engineering, and math that surrounds them through hands-on activities. Everyone can be a scientist! STEM is all around us…the night sky, a frog’s call, a blooming flower, a car’s engine, an Internet transmission, a deep breath…STEM at work.
If we can impress upon one student the joy of seeing science, technology, engineering, and math all around, we have done our jobs.
We all know by now that STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) is important for students, who need to build 21st-century skills to compete in today’s workforce. But STEM feels a bit like a prescription to eat more vegetables instead of birthday cake. Yes, STEM is nutritious, but the arts and humanities are so much more alluring, succulent, and enriching. At least that’s what I thought until a group of middle and high school students—and their robots—proved me wrong.
Botfest and Botball
At the 2016 New England Botfest Exhibition and Botball Tournament at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, students showed off their robotic creations. Lego pieces transformed into a walking pig, a butler, and a police station. LED lights adorned clothes and accessories. Several robots zoomed around to greet curious guests. And autonomous robots competed at Botball.
This annual event is the culmination of a STEM outreach partnership between the UMASS-Lowell Computer Science department and K-12 schools throughout Massachusetts and New England. According to the UMASS website, “Botball and Botfest provide fun, challenging, team-based, hands-on learning experiences for middle and high school students in computer science, robotics and technology. These efforts instill curiosity, knowledge and confidence to prepare students for college, career choices and the high tech workplace.” With the help of donations, this program provides teacher training and robotic classroom supplies.
While students explained how they built their creations (common materials: Lego pieces, motion sensors, motors, and computer software), I learned that my preconceptions about STEM were wildly inaccurate. STEM education encompasses so much more than science, technology, engineering, and math; it also includes teamwork, creativity, problem-solving, and—most shockingly—art.
Students from Brookside Elementary in Dracut, Massachusetts, worked together to design a walking pig, which they built with Lego pieces. They solved challenges such as programing their pig and using the appropriate motor to control its speed. Their labor resulted in a work of art. In fact, all of the creations I saw were indeed works of art.
STEM education, I realized, is not just about a bunch of abstract concepts. It is about creating things that have value in the real world, whether artistically, functionally, or both. Robots like NASA’s Valkyries, one of which recently arrived at UMASS-Lowell, are the future after all. Most importantly, though, when I asked the students if they had fun, each answered with an enthusiastic “yes!” So I guess STEM isn’t so bad.
How has your school integrated STEM into the curriculum?
Share your thoughts with us on Twitter @ProQuest or in the comments below.
One would think that designing the Gateway Arch would be a career-topping achievement, but the engineering triumph was the first major independent project that Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen would undertake. After Saarinen entered the 1947 architectural competition for Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, he set out to design a monument not only to Thomas Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase and the nation, but also to the modern age. For Saarinen, “The major concern was to create a monument which would have lasting significance and would be a landmark of our time…Neither an obelisk nor a rectangular box nor a dome seemed right on this site or for this purpose. But here, at the edge of the Mississippi River, a great arch did seem right.” Construction began February 12, 1963 and was completed October 28, 1965. Sadly, Saarinen did not live to see the completion of his design. He died of a brain tumor in 1961 at the age of 51. St. Louis was chosen as the site for the Arch because of its central role in the westward expansion of the United States; it was the starting point for many of the westward pioneers. Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery left on their 3-year journey from a camp just north of St. Louis.
Some interesting facts: The Gateway Arch stands at a height of 630 feet, compared to the Washington Monument at 555 feet and the Statue of Liberty at 305 feet. The 60-foot heads carved on Mount Rushmore are designed to the scale of men who would stand 465 feet tall, a height that would allow such giants to walk through the Arch. During the summer months, up to 6,400 people a day visit the Arch. 16 trams or pods, each holding 5 people, take visitors on a 4-minute trip to the observation area where one can see for 30 miles on a clear day. The stainless steel arch has foundations that are sunk 60 feet into the ground, and is built to withstand earthquakes and high winds. In fact, the Arch is designed to sway up to 18 inches. The inverted, weighted catenary arch is the world’s tallest arch and the tallest monument in the Western Hemisphere.
During the 50th anniversary of the Gateway Arch, use resources from eLibrary to study both history (Westward expansion of the United States) and science (architecture and engineering) at the same time.
Research Topics: Publications:
If you have ever suggested that someone’s idea was going to sink like a concrete canoe, hold on a minute; college students participating in the ASCE National Concrete Canoe Competition would beg to differ with that simile. Every year since 1988, the American Society of Civil Engineers has held the national event, which grew from smaller competitions started in the 1960s. There is also a Canadian version of the competition and a less-scientific contest in Germany. The teams get hands-on experience in design, engineering and materials science, learning to enhance a material that has been in use for thousands of years. The 2014 event runs June 18-22. See the link above to read about the competition and to see pictures from previous years.
Concrete has a long history, with versions of it going as far back as 6500 BC in Syria, but the Romans took concrete construction to great new levels. Possibly their most famous concrete structure is the dome of the Pantheon, which, at 142 feet in diameter, is the largest unreinforced concrete dome ever built.
Basic concrete is made up of only a few ingredients: Portland cement, aggregate (rocks and sand) and water. The cement, which is made by heating limestone, reacts chemically with the water to make a binder that becomes hard as it cures. The aggregate provides strength, as does steel or materials that are often embedded in the concrete. For an in-depth technical discussion of the science, see this University of Illinois site, available in eLibrary: Scientific Principles of Concrete. High-tech versions have additives to increase strength and flexibility to allow them to be used in a wide range of applications.
Besides being used in common places like sidewalks, highways and even countertops, concrete is the material used to create some of the largest structures in the world, including the Three Gorges Dam in China, Petronas Towers in Malaysia and the Hoover Dam in the U.S.
The study of concrete can provide insight into various subject areas, including history, chemistry, engineering and materials science. See the links above and below and search and browse in eLibrary and to discover lots of great stuff for your research project or for use in your classroom.
Subject browse sections (Click on underlined words to widen or narrow the scope and click on “View Results” to see eLibrary resources. Items with a star next to them will display a Research Topic pages.):
STEAM is a movement that integrates an A for the arts into the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) initiative from the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education. STEAM education was created in 2006 by former teacher Georgette Yakman.
The Creative Component
Advocates of STEAM contend that there should not be a dichotomy between science and art. Instead, art should be seen as a driver of creativity that can foster innovation and spark engagement and learning in science education.
“Engineers, inventors, and designers produce drawings as part of their creative process. They draw to work out and refine concepts and details. They draw to persuade. They draw to give direction. And they draw to record their ideas and to learn from others.”–Doodles, Drafts, and Designs, Industrial Drawings from the Smithsonian
Pathway to Economic Growth
John Maeda, president of the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, sees STEAM as a pathway to fostering U.S. economic growth. Maeda, writing in Edutopia, has said that “[d]esign creates the innovative products and solutions that will propel our economy forward, and artists ask the deep questions about humanity that reveal which way forward actually is.” He cites Apple as well-known example of a company in which design is crucial to the success of technology.
Tried and True
The idea of integrating the arts and sciences in education is nothing new. Leonardo da Vinci, for example, was not only a famous Renaissance artist, but was also a scientist, engineer and inventor. In fact, he used his skills as an artist to draw his mechanical ideas.
“If someone had told Leonardo da Vinci, Newton, or Galileo that the study of science in the 21st century would be separated from the creativity of the arts or the social, cultural, and historical insights into human behavior offered by the humanities, they would have wondered what scientists had done to make the world disrespect them so much. It’s an odd idea to separate out different kinds of knowledge that inspire and enrich one another in the real world and the virtual too.” – Duke Professor Cathy Davidson
Links for Teachers and Librarians
Over the past several years, more and more schools have begun integrating the arts into their STEM curricula. Below are six links you can use to incorporate STEAM into your classroom or library:
- 4 TED Talks for Educators Interested in STEAM
- 7 Guidelines for Building a STEAM Program
- All Things STEAM
- Full STEAM Ahead
- STEAM in Libraries ALA Webinar
- Where Science Meets Art
Websites for Students
Are your students working on a STEAM project and need a little inspiration? Below are five editorially-selected websites from ProQuest’s SIRS Issues Researcher.
- Abbot Handerson Thayer – Artist who is known as “the father of camouflage.”
- Doodles, Drafts, and Designs – Industrial drawings from the Smithsonian.
- Fabian Oefner – Artist whose work bridges the fields of art and science.
- Rebecca Kamen – Artist whose work moves between art and science.
- Theo Jansen – Artist who creates lifelike kinetic sculptures that move like living creatures.
If you’ve implemented a STEAM curriculum in your classroom or library, let us know what you’re doing in the comments section below or tweet us at #ProQuest.
Even though American women graduate from college in larger numbers than men, they fall behind when it comes to degrees in some of the fastest-growing and most lucrative STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) fields.
According to a 2012 report from the U.S. Department of Labor, while women make up 58.1% of the overall workforce, they are much less represented in particular engineering occupations. For example, just 22.3% of chemical engineers are women; 17.8% of industrial engineers; 13.1% of civil engineers, 8.8% of electrical and electronics engineers; and only 5.5% of mechanical engineers. In an effort to prepare more students for the high-tech workforce of the future, a growing number of women who have advanced into high-profile, high-tech positions are emerging as a force aimed at unleashing the untapped potential of girls and encouraging them to follow in their footsteps.
In 2001, the National Society of Professional Engineers, IBM, and the National Engineers Week Foundation first collaborated in a joint effort to bring national attention to the exciting opportunities that engineering represents for girls and women. On February 20, 2014, as many as one million girls and young women around the country will have the chance to be engaged and mentored by women engineers and their male counterparts in the 13th annual Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. Many businesses, libraries, universities, community groups and other venues will offer lab tours, on-line discussions, presentations, equipment demonstrations, workshops, job shadowing, films, guest speakers and interactive, hands-on activities to highlight career opportunities for girls interested in engineering fields.
Educators can look to SIRS WebSelect for resources and information to support Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. If you would like to help girls learn how exciting and rewarding an engineering career can be, check some of the web sites listed below: