Flower

Drive-In Theater Anniversary, Pre-Summer Movie Study

By now school is winding down in most places, and students and educators are getting ready for some summer fun. It just so happens that today is the anniversary of an icon of summer entertainment: the drive-in movie theater. The first permanent drive-in was opened by Richard Hollingshead, Jr. in Pennsauken, New Jersey, on June 6, 1933. Although it didn’t last long, it started a craze that peaked in the 1950s, when more than 4,000 theaters were operating. That number has dwindled to a few hundred, with the latest challenge being the movie industry’s transition to expensive digital projection systems.

Lawrence of Arabia Research Topic

Lawrence of Arabia RT, eLibrary

Okay, so eLibrary doesn’t have a Research Topic on drive-ins, but it does have a number of pages related to film history, genres and specific movies. If you are still in school and you need to fill some of the last days with something fun but meaningful, how about encouraging your students to watch some great movies over the summer. You could discuss film criticism, the relationship between films and their literary source materials or just let students scoop up some trivia. If you are already out of school and you are still reading this, you might as well check them out for yourself and use them to enhance your own movie enjoyment as you take a much-needed break from school.

Motion Pictures
Talking Films
2001: A Space Odyssey

Gone with the Wind
The Godfather Films
Star Wars
Casablanca
Horror
Apocalypse Now
Lawrence of Arabia
Singin’ in the Rain
Alfred Hitchcock

This a limited list; we have plenty of pages on film directors, actors and movies. Just search around.

CultureGrams Kids Edition Scavenger Hunt

In order to be successful in using a research database, students need to learn how that database works, of course–what content it offers, how the database can best be navigated, and what tools and features are available to help them in their research. And with all the databases and other online resources out there, it is a real challenge to find the time to train younger users on how to use the wide array of resources that are available to them.

But all is not lost! We’ve come up with a new scavenger hunt to help students become familiar with the CultureGrams Kids Edition. This is in addition to the scavenger hunt that we already developed for CultureGrams more broadly. By working through these twenty questions, either in groups or individually, students will learn about the country reports in the database and what categories of information are available, what supplemental features there are, how the data tables work, what multimedia resources they can access, how to cite CultureGrams as a source, and much more. And when students have completed the scavenger hunt, they will be much better prepared to do their own research in CultureGrams to prepare a presentation, create a poster, or write an essay because they will know what information the product has to offer them to do their work.

Kids Edition Scavenger Hunt

*Each of the questions is followed by parenthetical information that suggests where the answers can be found.

1. What tree is a national symbol of Haiti? (Haiti country landing page)
2. What is a smorgasbord in Sweden? (Sweden Food category)
3. What are the 5 largest and 5 smallest countries in the world? (Extremes Data Tables or Build-Your-Own)
4. The Netherlands has twice as many __________ as cars. (Netherlands landing page/Did You Knows)
5. How do you say (Can You Say It)
a. “Let’s have a barbecue” in Aussie English? (Australia Can You Say It)
b. “Hello” in Hindi in India? (India Can You Say It)
c. “No” in German? (Germany Can You Say It)
d. “Please” in Somali (Somalia Can You Say It)
6. What are some of the chores that kids in Madagascar do each day? (Madagascar Like as a Kid category)
7. Find a recipe from three countries on three different continents. (Recipes)
8. Find two interviews of children from two separate countries. List two things you have in common with the children and two things that are different. (Interviews)
9. What is the average life expectancy of a Brazilian compared to the average life expectancy of someone in the world as a whole? (Brazil landing page/Infographic)
10. What percentage of New Zealand’s population is Hindu? (New Zealand Religion category/pie chart)
11. What happened in 1219 in Afghanistan? (Afghanistan History category/Time Line)
12. Name one famous person from Mexico and tell what made them famous. (Mexico Famous People)
13. According to the Money and Economy category for Chile, Chile is the world’s largest producer of what? (Chili Money and Economy category)
14. Which country has the highest percentage of women in parliament? Spain, Thailand, or the United States? (Country Data Tables)
15. How far is it from the capital of Ukraine to the capital of Nicaragua? (Distance Calculator)
16. Find the photo “Cowboy” in the Myanmar photo gallery. What is the cowboy in the photo herding? (Myanmar Photo Gallery)
17. What type of vehicle is used to retrieve children from school in the video “School Pickup” from Vietnam. (Vietnam Video)
18. Create an MLA citation for the flag of Togo. (Flag Gallery or Togo landing page)
19. Of all the countries in the world, which one would you most like to visit? Explain why.
20. If you could live in any country in the world other than the country where you currently live, what would you choose and why?

To find the correct answers, check in the comments area. And be sure to let us know how the scavenger hunt works for your classes.

The Stonewall Riots and the Birth of Gay Liberation

Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, New York City, 2011 [Credit: InSapphoWeTrust from Los Angeles, California, USA, Creative Commons Attribution – Share Alike Generic 2.0 license] [via Wikimedia Commons]

Peace, love, and condemnation

We generally consider the 1960s in the United States as an era of peace and love. But the homosexual communities during this decade were commonly condemned by mainstream society.

Homosexuality was still classified as a “mental disorder” by the American Psychiatric Association. Police raids were conducted in establishments known to be “gay-friendly.” Homosexual acts were illegal, and many people were arrested for engaging in them. Some were fined; others were sentenced to long prison terms–even lifetime sentences. There were not many places where a gay man or woman could be open about their sexuality. Countless lesbians and gays lived “in the closet,” an existence in which they could not express their true selves.

The year was 1969

Stonewall Inn, Greenwich Village, 2011 [Credit: InSapphoWeTrust from Los Angeles, California, USA, Creative Commons Attribution - Share Alike Generic 2.0 license], [via Wikimedia Commons]

Stonewall Inn, site of the 1969 Stonewall riots, New York City [Credit: InSapphoWeTrust from Los Angeles, California, USA, CC BY-SA 3.0] [via Wikimedia Commons]

During the 1960s, New York City was home to the largest gay population in the country. The city was also considered to be one of the most aggressive against this alternative culture.

As the night of June 27 turned to June 28, in the year 1969, the New York City police conducted what they thought would be a routine raid at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village. Previous raids always resulted in arrests and not much opposition from the bar’s patrons.

Not on this night.

On this 1969 summer night, the gay liberation movement was born.

Out of the melee, pride emerges

In the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, gay patrons, regularly harassed by the New York City police, took a stand. Word of the demonstration spread and many joined the riot at the Stonewall Inn. Protests broke out throughout the city. They continued for days, despite police attempts to control the crowds. Shouts of “gay power” and singing of “We Shall Overcome” rang through the streets.

The Stonewall riots inspired local and national dialogue about gay civil rights. Very soon after the riots, a gay advocacy group in NYC was formed and a newspaper was launched. In commemoration of the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, the first gay pride parades were held in Greenwich Village, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Two years after the riots, nearly every major U.S. city had established a gay-rights organization. And in 1973, the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses.

Nearly five decades later…

Forty-eight years after the Stonewall riots, the gay liberation movement has evolved to encompass the civil rights for lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. Incredible strides have been made in the LGBT movement:

In 2000, Vermont became the first U.S. state to legalize civil unions between same-sex couples; four years later, Massachusetts was the first to legalize gay marriage. A June 2015 Supreme Court decision legalized same-sex marriage in all states, a huge victory for the LGBT movement.

What constituted a hate crime in the United States was expanded in 2009 to include crimes motivated by the victim’s gender, sexual orientation or identity or disability. 

In 2011, the Obama administration addressed the United Nations and announced that LGBT rights are “one of the remaining human rights challenges of our time” and that the country would support international efforts promoting LGBT rights.

Transgender rights became a mainstream issue after the turn of the century and quickly picked up momentum. By 2013, two major federal rulings advanced equal opportunity employment for transgender people. The year 2013 also heralded further progress in the struggle for transgender rights: California enacted the first U.S. law protecting transgender students, and the American Psychiatric Association eliminated its diagnosis “gender identity disorder.”

June is Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month, otherwise known as LGBT Pride Month. It was established in honor of the 1969 Stonewall Riots. It is a time of celebration, commemoration, and remembrance: a celebration of living freely, openly, and honestly; a commemoration of all that the LGBT community has contributed and what the LGBT rights movement has accomplished; and a remembrance of members of the LGBT community who lost their lives to hate crimes or HIV/AIDS.

Join SKS and its June Spotlight of the Month in honoring LGBT Pride Month. Learn about the history of the gay rights movement and follow its path as it is forged in the United States and many countries around the world.

“The Stonewall riot may have been the start of a civil rights movement, but it was not the beginning of our history.” ― Tom Cardamone, author, and activist

Classroom Activities for World No Tobacco Day

Every year on May 31, the World Health Organization designates as World No Tobacco Day to advocate for policies to reduce tobacco consumption through education about the health and other risks associated with tobacco use. The theme for 2017 is “Tobacco – a threat to development.” The focus of the campaign is to provide information on the threat the tobacco industry poses “to the sustainable development of all countries, including the health and economic well-being of their citizens.”

No Tobacco Day 2017 Poster

No Tobacco Day 2017 Poster (Credit: World Health Organization)

Here are some learning activity ideas for your classroom to mark World No Tobacco Day:

* Global Benefits of Tobacco Control: Have your students research the benefits of tobacco control for countries around the world through examples provided on the Who Health Organization’s Tobacco Free Initiative. Also, as an option, you can have students dig deeper and use CultureGrams to learn general background information for these countries.

* Debate Over Smoking Bans: Point students to the Smoking Bans Leading Issue on SIRS Issues Researcher. Ask them to argue a viewpoint and list supporting evidence in an essay or oral presentation.

* Global Effects of Tobacco Control: Ask students to use the World Health Organization Tobacco Control Country Profiles to research the way two different countries address tobacco control. Have them list the facts they find and also provide examples of how each country’s tobacco control or lack thereof affects its health and sustainability.

* Public Service Announcement: Have students create a short video directed to their peer group on the harmful effects of tobacco using research from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control.

* Infographic: Ask students to create an infographic or poster that illustrates the health effects of tobacco on the body using Piktochart, Canva, or another program.

Let us know your thoughts on teaching students about issues related to tobacco use. Tweet us #ProQuest.

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Fun & Educational Travel in Florida (with Hernando de Soto)

Hernando de Soto knew a good vacation spot when he saw one.

It is almost June, and that means that the school year is winding down, and many teachers and librarians are looking forward to a much-needed vacation! And, like de Soto, many of you, with families in tow, will be heading for sunny Florida to rest and relax on the beach. But just because you are on vacation doesn’t mean the learning has to stop. There are many fun and educational things to do and places to see while in the Sunshine State.

Hernando de Soto Research Topic

Hernando de Soto Research Topic via ProQuest’s eLibrary

Florida Beach Towns Research Topic

Florida Beach Towns Research Topic via ProQuest’s eLibrary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unlike Hernando, most of you will be either flying or driving the interstate to your destination. After sailing for over 30 days, in late May 1539, Spanish conquistador de Soto landed nine ships with over 620 men and 220 horses in an area generally identified as south Tampa Bay, Florida. You must admit…travel is so much easier today. How would you like to take care of 200 sea-sick horses for a month?

After hitting the beach, wearing yourself to a frazzle at Disney or taking the kids to see Harry Potter at Universal, it will be time to check out some of the slower-paced sites Florida has to offer…like the Kennedy Space Center, a STEM teacher’s dream.

Kennedy Space Center Rocket Garden

Kennedy Space Center Rocket Garden [Photo by Tom Mason]

Atlantis Exhibit, Kennedy Space Center

Josh at the Atlantis Exhibit, KSC [Photo by Tom Mason]

 

 

My son Josh and I geeked out at Kennedy. Plan on spending an entire day there.

Besides seeing the awesome Rocket Garden, you can go to the Astronaut Hall of Fame, and don’t forget to take the bus tour where you will pass by the Vehicle Assembly Building (one of the largest buildings in the world) and stop at the Explore the Moon exhibit which is a massive display of the technology that sent humans to the moon.

 

 

One of the highlights is the Space Shuttle Atlantis exhibit which takes you past two solid rocket boosters and orange external tank to see Atlantis close-up.

Space Shuttle Atlantis, KSC

Space Shuttle Atlantis, KSC [Photo by Tom Mason]

Moving up the “Space Coast,” you’ll arrive at St. Augustine. Besides being the oldest city in the United States, it also lays claim to having the oldest wooden school house in America. It is located in the Old City on St. George Street near the City Gate. Tax records show that the tiny school was around in 1716 and possibly before then. You will notice a huge chain wrapped around the building; it was placed there in 1937 to hold the house in place during hurricanes. I might also recommend going on one of the Ghost Walks in the Old City (which will take you past the school house). They are entertaining, educational and not too scary for the kids. History teachers (and history buffs) will enjoy the many sites in Old St. Augustine.

Oldest Wood School House in America

Oldest Wood School House in the USA [Photo by Debra Mason]

For you ELA teachers, I would recommend the Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum in Key West. It was Hemingway’s home from 1931 to 1939 and is now open to the public. It is a U.S. National Historic Landmark.

Now, getting back to de Soto…

While Hernando might get a failing grade for his relations with the Native Americans he encountered, you certainly have to give him an “A” for chutzpah. Hernando de Soto led the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Tennessee and Arkansas), and he was the first documented European to have crossed the Mississippi River. He encouraged the local natives to believe that he was a type of sun god, but, uncharacteristic of a deity, died of a fever on May 21, 1542.

Hopefully, that will not happen to you while on vacation this summer.

Here are just a few eLibrary Research Topics and Websites to look at before you head out on your Florida vacation:

Everglades National Park (Research Topic)

Florida Forests and Parks (Research Topic)

Florida History (Research Topic)

Florida Keys (Research Topic)

Fun Florida Field Trips (FL Dept. of Education Website)

Key West (Research Topic)

Let others know about some of your educational travel ideas. You can tweet us using #ProQuest

Ramadan Traditions around the World

A boy reads from his Qur’an at a mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia, during the holy month of Ramadan. [Photo by Ilyas A. Abukar via Flickr]

Last Friday, May 26, was the beginning of Ramadan, a holy month during which many Muslims worldwide fast from sunrise to sunset. Ramadan is holy because it is believed to be the month in which the Qur’an (Koran) was revealed to the prophet Muhammed. It is a time of faith, reflection, peace, and charity, during which Muslims visit the mosque, abstain from physical excesses, and spend time with family and friends. Food is eaten before sunrise, and then after fasting during the daylight hours, Muslims break their fast with iftar, the fast-breaking meal. The fast is commonly broken by eating dates, and then an evening meal is eaten with family and friends. Food is also given to the poor.

Ramadan is celebrated in countries around the world. Check out these Ramadan traditions explained in our CultureGrams reports!

Morocco
During Ramadan, Moroccans awake before dawn to share a light breakfast, and some people begin with prayer in the mosque. Children attend a shortened day of school, and work hours are altered to accommodate the missing lunchtime and to allow people to rest in the afternoon. In some neighborhoods, young men organize daytime soccer matches to show off their agility even while fasting.

The fast ends each day at sundown, when participants break their fast by eating dates and drinking some water or milk, followed by a traditional soup called harira. Special breads and sweets are also served. Select prayers are offered each evening in the mosque, so that the entire Qur’an is recited by the end of the month. The streets fill with people after these prayers, and people enjoy staying up late to visit with each other.

Ramadan treats in a Morocco market [via the CultureGrams Photo Gallery]

Ramadan treats in a Morocco market [via the CultureGrams Photo Gallery]

Brunei
During Ramadan, government employees have a short workday of six hours, and all entertainment and sport activities are suspended. Each evening, Muslims are encouraged to attend prayers at the mosque. Non-Muslims are encouraged not to eat, drink, or smoke in public. While everyone is encouraged to avoid wearing clothing that reveals arms or feet, it is especially emphasized during Ramadan.

Iraq
Before dawn during Ramadan, families wake up and eat a meal called suhur, their main meal before fasting for the day. In most neighborhoods, a man is designated as a caller that goes through the streets banging on a drum and shouting for people to wake up, eat, and pray. On the last day of Ramadan, the drummer will go around to people’s houses and collect tips and treats. In the evenings, family and friends gather to celebrate and eat. During Ramadan, most government offices and businesses work shorter hours. In the middle of the month of Ramadan, children celebrate Qarqe’an Majina by going door to door and asking neighbors for treats.

Oman
At night during Ramadan, families break the fast with traditional meals, prepared by the women of the family, of rice served with beef, mutton, chicken, or fish; a wide variety of pastries are also served. Ramadan is a time for praying and reading the Qur’an. In some parts of Oman, people gather in a mosque to complete their reading of the Qur’an as a sign that Ramadan is about to end. Most civic centers and women’s associations hold Qur’an recitation nights, where prizes are given to those who are able to recite the most scriptures from memory without making mistakes.

Tweet us @CultureGrams to share your own Ramadan traditions! Or learn more about Ramadan traditions from CultureGrams Kids and World edition reports! You can also explore our Photo Gallery for images of Ramadan around the world.

Public Libraries Make a Difference: 5 Key Benefits of Summer Education Programs

Public libraries perform a key role in the education and development of young learners through summer education programs.

Summer vacation threatens to reverse many of the achievement gains that students—and teachers—worked so hard to reach during the previous school year. Low-income students are especially vulnerable to the “summer slide.” According to the Young Adult Library Services Association, low-income students “lose more than two months in math skills and reading achievement, despite the fact that their middle-class peers make slight gains.” Summer education programs can stop the summer slide.

 

Public libraries that offer dynamic summer educations provide these five key benefits:

1. Foster a Love of Reading

To foster a lifelong love of reading, summer reading programs offer incentives for kids to read multiple books during the summer. This summer, the New York Public Library is encouraging kids to read by challenging them to enter an essay contest where they write about how the book they are reading or how books in general help make the world a better place. The winners will see the Yankees, meet a player, and take a bow on the field.

2. Close the Achievement Gap

Summer educational programs help reduce the achievement gap experienced during the summer months. This is especially critical for low-income children who may have other opportunities available. In 2010, a study carried out at Dominican University found that:

• Students who participated in the public library summer reading program scored higher on reading achievement tests at the beginning of the next school year than those students who did not participate and they gained in other ways as well.

• Students who participated in the public library summer reading program had better reading skills at the end of third grade and scored higher on the standards test than the students who did not participate.

3. Provide Much-Needed Meals

Children from low-income areas may spend all day at the library because their parents are working and cannot afford to enroll them in a camp or provide childcare. Children who depend on free or reduced-price lunch programs during the school year are at risk of hunger during the summer months. And when kids are hungry, they are not receptive to learning. Many libraries provide meals alongside enriching programs involving craft, games, music, and movies. Lunch at the Library is an organization that “provides library staff with the tools and support they need to develop successful public library summer meal programs that provide children and teens in low-income communities with free and nutritious lunches through the USDA Summer Food Service Program.”

4. Offer STEM/Hands-On Education

According to the Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), students need 21st-century skills to prepare for college and career. YALSA recommends a broad learning program for summer and a focus on STEM with hands-on activities that capture the interest of children and teenagers. The Orange County Library System in central Florida, offers camps, classes, and programs during the summer with many hands-on learning opportunities. Technology camps offer the opportunities for kids to learn engineering, robotics & electronics, graphic design, audio & video production, sewing, knitting, weaving, space exploration, and more.

5. Enable Teen Volunteer Opportunities

The Collaborative Summer Library Program’s 2017 theme is Build a Better World. One of the best ways teens can build a better world is by giving back to their community through volunteering at their local library during the summer. Teen volunteers at the Kirkwood Public Library in Missouri make flyers, do prep work for activities, help with summer reading programs, and become reading buddies to kids.

Public libraries provide key services to children during the summer months and all year long, often partnering with local schools to make sure students have the resources they need to succeed. They truly make a difference in their communities.

Support public libraries and join the American Library Association’s effort to save library funding. #saveIMLS

ProQuest offers comprehensive and ever-expanding content for Public Libraries.

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Five Life Lessons from the Game of Baseball

5 Baseball Life Lessons

Summer is fast approaching, and with it comes rising temperatures, the end of the school year, graduations, and the heart of baseball season.

In the interest of full disclosure, I will confess that I am a big baseball fan. The fabric of our nation’s pastime is completely woven into my life. If “my team” is playing, you can find me watching the game. As I settled in to watch “my” floundering Miami Marlins take the field, I reflected on what has kept me coming back to the game after all these years. (It certainly isn’t because my team is a winner!)

One of the things that appeal to me about baseball is how it perfectly captures the American spirit. There are lessons I have learned from watching the game that are applicable not just on the playing field, but in the classroom and in life.

Here are five baseball life lessons you can share with your students as they prepare to complete this inning of their life.

1. What happens at the beginning is not always a predictor of end results. Baseball is a long season. Over the course of 162 games, there will be ups and downs. Just like a player who needs to warm up, a student may struggle at the start of the year, only to turn things around and wind up finishing at the top of his or her class.

2. Even the best may fail sometimes. Ted Williams is considered one of the greatest hitters in the history of baseball, finishing his career with a .344 batting average. That means he was successful at bat only 3 out of 10 times, or he “failed” 7 out of 10 times. Your students will also hit bumps in the road, but the one thing they can control is giving it their best effort.

3. It takes a team. Nine players take the field in every game, with more players on the bench and in the bullpen. They all must play their part to win the game. Just like baseball, education is a team sport. It requires students, teachers, administrators, counselors, parents, and others to work together to solve problems and ensure success.

4. Be bold and take risks. Baseball games can be full of risky moves: stealing a base, executing a suicide squeeze, or even leaving a fatigued pitcher in for one more batter. Sometimes those risks pay off and change the course of a game. Similarly, in life, individuals must be willing to take the occasional risk in order to reach their full potential.

5. Sometimes life will throw you a curveball. The game—and life—does not always go according to plan. But what matters is how you react to the unexpected: will you swing and miss or will you make adjustments and knock one out of the park?

Are you a baseball fan? What life lessons will you pass on to your students? Comment below or tweet us at #ProQuest.

Teddy Roosevelt, Our National Monuments, and The Antiquities Act of 1906

On the 8th of June, 1906, President Teddy Roosevelt signed into law the Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities, more familiarly known as the Antiquities Act of 1906. The law gives the President of the United States the authority, by executive proclamation, to create national monuments from federally-owned public lands in order to protect important “historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest.” On September 24, 1906, almost four months after he signed the bill, Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first national monument in the United States. Devils Tower was the first of many that he would designate as national monuments under his presidency.

Since the first day of its signing, the law has been steeped in controversy pitting lawmakers, landowners, and resource extraction industries against environmentalists, conservationists, and federal land managers who have sought greater protections. Just last month President Trump ordered Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke to review national monuments created since 1996, which the President called “a massive federal land grab.”

With this review now taking place it’s a perfect time for science and social educators alike to explore with their students the history and background of the Antiquities Act and the lands the act is meant to protect. There are some basic question that teachers may want to ask their students:

  • What are national monuments and why do we need them?
  • What was the intent of the Antiquities Act of 1906?
  • What protections does the law afford, and what rights and responsibilities do landowners and lesees have inside national monument lands?
  • What scientific and cultural values do these national monuments have?

The current review by the Trump administration will look at around 24 national monuments designated since 1996, many of which reside in California, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada. You can learn more in eLibrary about our nation’s national monuments and the national parks that were originally designated as monuments. Not yet a subscriber to ProQuest products? Request a Free Trial here!

Here is a partial list of the national monuments under review by the Trump administration:

Bears Ear National Monument
Vermilion Cliffs
Canyons of the Ancients
Giant Sequoia National Monument
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument

And here is a sample of national monuments and national parks that were originally designated as national monuments:

Chaco Canyon (New Mexico)
Mesa Verde National Park
(Colorado)
Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona)
Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (Arizona)
Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona)
Olympic National Park (Washington)
Muir Woods National Monument
Death Valley National Park (California)
Katmai National Park and Preserve (Alaska)
Crater Lake National Park (Oregon)
Capitol Reef National Park (Utah)

Teaching Activity: Tracing the Effects of Slavery

Frear’s Silk Dept (circa 1882), via Wikimedia Commons

This activity comes from the CultureGrams Teaching Activities PDF, which features more than 70 activities to help teachers make the most of our country, state, and province reports.

Grade level: 9–12

Objective: Students will understand the geographical scope of the slave trade. They will be able to trace some of the lingering socioeconomic and cultural effects of slavery across the world. See the Teaching Activites PDF for Common Core and other national curriculum standards met by this activity.

Time requirement

Preparation: 30 minutes

Monument of the Four Moors, Livorno, Italy, via Wikimedia Commons

In-class: 50 minutes, less if students read selections at home

Materials

CultureGrams World Edition

Helpful maps from UNESCO

Understanding Slavery Initiative (timelines, maps, paintings, and images of artifacts)

Instructions

  1. Explain to the students how, besides being a general atrocity and a personal tragedy for the millions of Africans who were sold as slaves, the African slave trade has had a major effect on the history of the world. Slavery has influenced the historical development and current cultural and socioeconomic conditions of many nations: African nations from which individuals were captured and nations in the Americas to which Africans were brought as
  2. Divide the class in half to form two groups. Have each group read from these selections in class or at home:
Group One Group Two
United States (History) Angola (History)
Antigua and Barbuda (History, Arts, Holidays) Botswana (Religion)
Barbados (History, Language, Arts) Malawi (History)
Haiti (History, Population) Mozambique (History)
St. Lucia (History, Population, Holidays) Senegal (History)
St. Kitts and Nevis (History, Flag description) Sierra Leone (History, Population, Religion)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (History, Holidays)
  1. Ask the students in Group Two to discuss the circumstances surrounding the African side of the slave trade, in addition to any long-lasting effects it has had on populations or
  2. Ask the students in Group One to discuss the history and cultural impact of slavery in those countries. What did it take to end slavery? What types of economies were created as a result of the slave trade? How did it influence the arts and languages of the Americas?
  3. Have each group prepare a short presentation to share their findings with the other group.
  4. As a class, analyze the Country and Development Data for all of the countries. Which statistics might slavery have influenced and how?

Carving of slave caravan, alternate, Lake Malawi Museum ,by Tim Cowley via Wikimedia Commons

Extension activity

For background information, read the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) report on modern-day slavery (summary of facts below).

  • Almost 21 million people are victims of forced labour – 11.4 million women and girls and 9.5 million men and boys.
  • Almost 19 million victims are exploited by private individuals or enterprises and over 2 million by the state or rebel groups.
  • Of those exploited by individuals or enterprises, 4.5 million are victims of forced sexual exploitation.
  • Forced labour in the private economy generates US$ 150 billion in illegal profits per year.
  • Domestic work, agriculture, construction, manufacturing and entertainment are among the sectors most concerned.
  • Migrant workers and indigenous people are particularly vulnerable to forced labour.

Explain to the class that slavery still exists and briefly discuss the various forms it takes (i.e. child and bonded laborers, sex slaves, domestic servants, agricultural workers, etc.). For homework, instruct students to look up a current event dealing with a form of modern-day slavery, then do a write-up that summarizes the event and analyzes the laws and circumstances that result in continued slavery; they might also compare the effects of modern-day slavery with those of the African slave trade.

In this article, students can put a face to modern descendants of the African slave trade and hear their perspectives.