Archive for the ‘eLibrary’ Category
Every school child knows that the Spanish nobleman and explorer Juan Ponce de Léon discovered Florida in the Spring of 1513 while searching for the legendary Fountain of Youth. We know this because the state of Florida commemorated the 500th anniversary of Ponce de Léon’s arrival with a year-long celebration called Viva Florida 500 in 2013. Tourists can visit Ponce de Léon’s Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park in St. Augustine, Ponce de Léon Springs State Park in the northwest panhandle, or various statues of the famed explorer–located in front of St. Augustine’s city hall, in Bayfront Park in Miami, at Juan Ponce de Léon Landing Park near Melbourne Beach, and another in San Juan, Puerto Rico, where he was the first governor.
His legacy continues today in the towns, cities, and streets all over America that are named for him, but let’s explore some of the myths surrounding Ponce de Léon’s “discovery” of Florida and his search for the “Fountain of Youth.”
Myth: Ponce de Léon Was Born in 1460
* Early historians and scholars believed that he was born in 1460, and many reference books still cite this date. One of the factors that originally supported the legend that Ponce de Léon was seeking a fountain of youth was the mistaken belief that he was a relatively old man (53) at the time of his voyage.
* In 1974, American historian and Harvard professor Samuel Eliot Morison was the first to document that Ponce de Léon was actually born in 1474, making him only 39 years old when he landed in Florida.
Myth: Ponce de Léon Was a Spanish Nobleman
* Ponce de Léon was born in San Tervás del Campo. While the names of his parents aren’t known, it is believed that he was the illegitimate son of a powerful Andalusian nobleman.
* As a young boy, he became the page of a Spanish knight of Calatrava named Pedro Núñez de Guzmán. Even though he was poor and illegitimate, he was educated and received some military training. He participated in military campaigns, including the war to conquer the Kingdom of Granada.
* In 1493, he volunteered to serve on one of the 17 ships that were part of Christopher Columbus’ second voyage to the new World.
Myth: Ponce de Léon Discovered Florida
* When he first arrived on Florida’s shores, there were an estimated 100,000 to as many as 350,000 native Americans already living there. Among the known tribes were Timucuans, Apalachee, Pensacola, Tocobaga, Calusa, Tequesta, Jeaga, Jobe, Ais, and others.
* Archeological evidence indicates that their earliest ancestors arrived there some 12,000 years ago. By the end of the 17th century, nearly all of these indigenous peoples were gone–due to a combination of European aggression, enslavement and the introduction of diseases like smallpox, influenza, typhus and measles.
* He was probably not even the first European to visit Florida, though he was the first to land under the authority of the King of Spain, so it was recorded and recognized. He called the land La Florida, the Spanish term for “place of flowers,” or because the Spanish religious festival Pascua Florida (Easter) was occurring at the time.
* The Spanish had already been sending expeditions to the Bahamas for years to capture slaves, and there is evidence that some made it to the east coast of Florida. By 1513, when Ponce de Léon first arrived, so many Europeans had visited Florida that some Indians greeted him in Spanish.
* The English explorers John Cabot and his son Sebastian explored the east coast of North America in 1497-1498—from present-day Canada to possibly even as far as Florida. Others say that Saint Brendan of Ireland may have traveled to Florida’s shores sometime between 512 and 530 AD, or perhaps the Viking explorer Leif Eriksson landed there in 1000 AD.
* As many as six different maps dated from 1500-1511 have been discovered that appear to show the peninsula of Florida.
Myth: He Was Searching for the Fountain of Youth
* Ponce de León received a contract from King Ferdinand of Spain in 1512 to explore and settle an island called Bimini. He was in search of riches in the form of gold and land, as well as a possible governorship for himself.
* “No mention of a Fountain of Youth occurs in any known documents from Ponce’s lifetime, including contracts and other official correspondence with the Crown,” according to University of South Florida historian J. Michael Francis.
* It wasn’t until fourteen years after his death that the Fountain of Youth legend came about. In 1535, Spanish historian and writer Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, who was a political adversary of Ponce de Léon, wrote about the Fountain of Youth in an account of the Spanish presence in the Americas entitled Historia general y natural de las Indias. It’s widely viewed as an attempt to discredit his achievements and make the explorer appear foolish.
* Ponce de Léon most certainly never found the Fountain of Youth. While he and his men were attempting to establish a colony on Florida’s west coast, they were ambushed by a group of Calusa Indians. He was wounded by a poison arrow in the attack and died in Cuba in 1521, at the age of 47.
* The Fountain of Youth Archeological park in St. Augustine is a not the legitimate site of the legendary fountain, but a tourist attraction that first opened in 1904–dreamed up by a woman named Louella Day McConnell. The current park was developed by Walter B. Fraser after he purchased it in 1927. His family still runs the park, which is one of Florida’s oldest continuous tourist attractions, with 100,000 annual visitors.
To find out more about Ponce de Léon, the exploration of Florida, and the Fountain of Youth, direct your students to these ProQuest Research Topic pages available on eLibrary:
ProQuest Guided Research products support information literacy, writing, and research skills instruction by providing educator resources and curriculum-aligned content. Not a ProQuest customer? Free trials are available.
One of the biggest challenges for teachers is helping students overcome the fear of writing the research paper. Students will invariably ask: “What should I write about? How do I get started? Where do I find the information for my subject? It’s due when?!” Not only is it a challenge for students to get started and take the time to research their subject thoroughly, but also be under pressure with a deadline to finish it. It’s up to the teacher to help students navigate these obstacles and be successful with their research papers. ProQuest may be able to help you in this endeavor.
ProQuest’s eLibrary can help you guide your students through the research process from beginning to end with its Research Topic on Writing a Research Paper. There is a section on the elements and processes of writing with articles on critical thinking skills, note-taking, evaluating sources, and revising and editing their papers, along with other helpful articles.
One aspect of writing a research paper is using and citing reliable information sources. In the past several months fake news has become a topic of interest in national politics, but it can be a great teaching tool as part of your research instruction by showing students the difference of what is and is not reliable information. eLibrary also has a Research Topic on Fake News, with articles about the characteristics of fake news, evaluating sources, and how to recognize fake news when it is presented.
Another source for helping you guide your students through the research process is the ProQuest Research Companion, a self-guided tool that assists them in doing more effective research and helps you teach the fundamentals of finding and evaluating useful, reliable information. Research Companion can help your students wade through what is often an overwhelming amount of information by guiding their research effort. It is comprised of ten Learning Modules and five interactive tools arranged to automate the stages of the research process.
Research can be hard for for first-time researchers, and even seasoned students can find it difficult wading through the process of gathering information, drafting, revising, editing, and finalizing their research papers. But maybe it can be less painful with a little help from ProQuest.
Today many educators, including math teachers, who are looking for ways to engage students’ minds can sweeten the learning curve by celebrating March 14 (3.14), Pi Day. Just like pi, there are infinite possibilities in motivating students in learning this mathematical constant (as long as they get to eat the examples, of course). Making pies, cookies, cakes, and other circular foods (don’t forget about pizza!) of different sizes can all play a part in motivating students in discovering the wonders of pi.
Students can double down on the learning experience because today is also the birthday of the world’s most celebrated scientist, Albert Einstein. And you can bet that Einstein was no stranger to pi. March 14 is a wonderful opportunity to enlighten your students about the endless fascination to the mathematical constant pi (3.14), and at the same time teach them about the extraordinary life of one of our greatest scientists. Be sure to click on the pi and Albert Einstein images below to open ProQuest Research Topics to learn more on both, or search eLibrary here.
Here are some facts about both Pi and Albert Einstein:
- Pi is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (circumference divided by diameter).
- Pi is an irrational number meaning that it cannot be written as a fraction and therefore has to be expressed as an infinite non-repeating decimal.
- The Babylonians first calculated the area of a circle around 2,000 B.C.
- Archimedes was the first to use the calculation of pi. He roughly calculated the area of a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons.
- The earliest adoption of the Greek symbol for pi (π) was by William Jones.
- The closest fraction representing pi is 22/7.
- English singer-songwriter Kate Bush has a song called “Pi” in which she sings the number’s first 100 decimal places.
- Einstein dropped out of high school and failed his first college entrance exam.
- Adolph Hitler considered Einstein enemy number one. After Hitler’s ascendancy to Chancellor of Germany, he had his house sacked while he was in California. Einstein never returned to Germany.
- Family members say Albert didn’t start to speak until the age of four.
- Einstein was a member of the NAACP. When Einstein arrived in America he was shocked by how African Americans were treated. Before he moved to America he frequently corresponded with civil rights leader and founder of the NAACP, W.E.B. Dubois.
- In less than one year in 1905, Einstein, an unknown scientist at the time, wrote and published his Annu mirabilis (The Miracle Year) papers. In these papers, he redefined the laws of physics and altered our views on space, time, mass, and energy, and laid the foundation for all modern physics we know today.
- After Einstein’s death, Princeton University pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed Einstein’s autopsy. He removed his brain for research purposes but strangely kept it at his house for over 40 years. Some time later in the 1990s, he took the brain on a strange trip across America in the trunk of a Buick Skylark.
It’s time to spring ahead! At 2:00 a.m. on Sunday, March 12, most of us in the United States—unless we live in Arizona or Hawaii—will move our clocks forward one hour. While many people appreciate the extra hour of sunlight at the end of the day, just as many probably dread heading to work and school in the dark before sunrise.
Daylight Saving Time was first used to conserve energy during World War I. Today, more than 70 countries use Daylight Saving Time in at least part of their country. Researchers may be surprised to learn that Daylight Saving Time has such a confusing and complicated history in the U.S. and that there are many arguments for and against its use. Those in favor of DST argue that it saves energy, encourages more physical activity, and reduces accidents and crime. Opponents of DST say that it is economically disruptive, particularly to farmers, and dangerous for children who have to walk to morning bus stops in the dark.
Here is a brief timeline of legislation regarding time zones and Daylight Saving in the U.S.:
1784: Benjamin Franklin suggests the concept of daylight saving as a way to use fewer candles.
1883: American and Canadian railroads establish national time zones to end the confusion of dealing with thousands of different local times.
March 19, 1918: Congress enacts a law to establish standard time zones and sets summer Daylight Saving Time to begin on March 31, 1918.
1919: The Daylight Saving Time law is repealed due to its unpopularity. It remains a local option and is continued in a few states and in some cities.
1942-1943: President Franklin Roosevelt institutes year-round Daylight Saving Time, also called “War Time”, during World War II.
1945-1966: There is no federal law regarding Daylight Saving Time so states and cities are free to choose when it begins and ends. This becomes a source of confusion, especially for the broadcasting industry, railways, airlines, and bus companies.
1966: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Uniform Time Act of 1966 which calls for Daylight Saving Time to begin on the last Sunday of April and to end on the last Sunday of October. The law allows any state that doesn’t want to use Daylight Saving Time to pass a state law exempting themselves.
Jan. 4, 1974: President Richard Nixon signs the Emergency Daylight Saving Time Energy Conservation Act of 1973 in an effort to conserve energy during the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Daylight Saving Time begins on Jan. 6, 1974 and ends on Oct. 27, 1974. Daylight Saving Time then resumes on Feb. 23, 1975, and ends on Oct. 26, 1975.
1986: Congress passes a law declaring that Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. begins at 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday of April and ends at 2:00 a.m. on the last Sunday of October.
2005: The Energy Policy Act of 2005 extends Daylight Saving Time in the U.S. beginning in 2007.
2007: The Energy Policy Act of 2005 goes into effect with Daylight Saving Time beginning at 2:00 a.m. on the second Sunday of March and ending at 2:00 a.m. on the first Sunday of November.
Find student resources about Daylight Saving Time with these websites, articles, and Research Topics from SIRS Issues Researcher and eLibrary:
It’s that time of year again when the grass is greening, leaves are sprouting, tornado sirens are wailing, and all are wondering who will be cutting down the nets in college hoops! In 2017, the NCAA men’s basketball Final Four will be held at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, while the women’s Final Four will be decided at American Airlines Center in Dallas, Texas. A little history: The University of Oregon defeated Ohio State University 46-33 on March 27, 1939 in the first-ever NCAA men’s basketball tournament. For the first 12 years of the tourney, only 8 teams were invited to play. Today, 65 teams participate. The 2017 men’s Final Four will begin April 1 with the championship game on Monday, April 3rd.
The most successful team in NCAA men’s history is UCLA, with a record 11 titles, 10 of those under head coach John Wooden. The University of Kentucky is 2nd with 8 banners, followed by Indiana, Duke and North Carolina, each with 5 championships. The NCAA held the first women’s basketball tourney in 1982. The Connecticut Huskies are the most dominant team in the women’s tournament with 11 titles under coach Geno Auriemma. The Tennessee Volunteers are a close second with 8 championships under legendary coach Pat Summitt.
We have Illinois basketball players to thank for the nickname “March Madness.” The Illinois High School Association (IHSA) began a boy’s tournament of 8 teams in March 1908 (Peoria High soundly beat Rock Island 48-29). The actual name “March Madness” probably comes from a 1939 article by IHSA executive secretary Henry V. Porter. In that article, entitled “March Madness,” Porter writes of the fans’ obsession with the thud of the ball on the court and the swish of the ball through the net.
Teachers can use students’ enthusiasm for March Madness in the classroom. Brian Sztabnik, an AP Literature teacher in Miller Place, New York, uses AP Lit March Madness, a method to determine the best work of literature that students have read during the year. Sztabnik has his students create brackets, form committees and vote on books they have read. Here is a link describing Brian’s neat idea: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/march-madness-meets-ap-lit-brian-sztabnik.
So, no matter which team you are rooting for (or against), don’t forget to fill out your brackets, and may the best team win!
NCAA March Madness BONUS
The best mascot in all of sports: Western Kentucky University’s Big Red. (Now you know who I am rooting for!)
March has been designated as Red Cross Month by every U.S. president since World War II. The American Red Cross is a charitable organization committed to providing care to people in need. The humanitarian organization’s mission is to prevent and relieve suffering. It depends on volunteers and generous donors to support its lifesaving programs and services. March is the perfect time to educate your students about the history of the American Red Cross, the services it provides, and the volunteer opportunities available.
The American Red Cross was founded on May 21, 1881, in Washington, D.C. by Clara Barton. Clarissa Harlowe Barton worked as a school teacher and as a recording clerk at the U.S. Patent Office in Washington, D.C. During the Civil War, she provided assistance to the soldiers by bringing them supplies and offering them support. When she visited Europe after the Civil War, Barton was introduced to the global Red Cross network in Geneva, Switzerland. After she returned to the United States, Barton lobbied for an American Red Cross and for U.S. ratification of the Geneva Treaty. The treaty was signed by President Chester A. Arthur on March 1, 1882, and ratified by the U.S. Senate on March 16, 1882.
Clara Barton became the first president of the American Red Cross. She led the organization for 23 years. During Barton’s tenure, the American Red Cross conducted its first disaster relief efforts domestically and abroad, cared for American soldiers during the Spanish-American War, and successfully campaigned for the inclusion of relief work in peacetime.
Today, the American Red Cross is focused on five key areas:
∙ Disaster Relief: Every year the American Red Cross responds to nearly 70,000 disasters in the United States, ranging from home fires to hurricanes. Disaster victims are provided with food, shelter, and health and mental health services.
∙ Lifesaving Blood: The American Red Cross is the “largest single supplier of blood and blood products” in the United States. Every year, approximately 4 million people support the American Red Cross by donating blood, helping to provide over 40% of the nation’s blood supply.
∙ Supporting U.S. Military Families: The American Red Cross assists members of the military, veterans, and their families by helping them plan for, manage, and respond to the unique challenges of military service.
∙ International Services: The American Red Cross provides assistance to disaster victims around the world, invests in disaster preparedness, reconnects families who have been separated by disaster and international war, helps vaccinate children against measles, and educates about international humanitarian law.
∙ Health and Safety Services: The American Red Cross is the leading provider of safety and health courses in the United States. Such courses include CPR, Lifeguard training, and First Aid. Every year, over 9 million Americans take park in the organization’s training programs, including educators, first responders, and babysitters.
Being young is not a barrier to volunteering at the American Red Cross—approximately 25% of the organization’s volunteers are 24 years old or younger. The American Red Cross offers many opportunities for youth to have diverse and new experiences, serve the needs of their communities, and gain leadership skills. Some volunteer opportunities for young people include hosting a blood drive, distributing disaster preparedness information, assembling comfort kits for disaster victims, and fundraising activities.
Students can also start or join a Red Cross Club. Red Cross Clubs give students a chance to connect with their peers while helping their community. Students who volunteer with the American Red Cross are able to make a meaningful impact in people’s lives, maximize their talents, learn life-saving skills, and improve their resumes.
Most everyone knows Rosa Parks whose courageous action of not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama city bus to a white passenger on December 1, 1955, helped launch the civil rights movement. Most people do not know Claudette Colvin who also refused to give up her seat on the bus — nine months before Rosa Parks.
On March 2, 1955, fifteen-year-old Claudette Colvin remained seated when a white passenger boarded the bus and waited for her to move. She believed it her constitutional right to sit wherever she chose even though Jim Crow laws of the day dictated otherwise. She was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct and resisting arrest. Claudette would later say, “I couldn’t get up that day. History kept me stuck to my seat. I felt the hand of Harriet Tubman pushing down on one shoulder and Sojourner Truth pushing down on the other.”
Claudette Colvin’s arrest provided the spark needed to make a stand and provide a test case to end segregation on city buses. However, local African-American leadership thought otherwise. They believed Claudette would be perceived as too militant. Her image was not the one the movement wanted to cast. When she became pregnant a few months later, their belief was reinforced. Instead, Rosa Parks’ similar act of defiance would hasten the 381-day Montgomery Bus Boycott and lay the foundation for the modern civil rights movement.
Not until many years later would Claudette Colvin become more than just a footnote in history. Her role is not celebrated, but it is nonetheless pivotal. In a recent honor, Montgomery Mayor Todd Strange called her “an early foot soldier in our civil rights.” Claudette Colvin stands alongside Rosa Parks — two women, two generations — taking a stand and helping to change history.
Engineering is the science by which the properties of matter and the sources of power in nature are made useful to humans in structures, devices, machines, and products. An engineer is an individual who specializes in one of the many branches of engineering.
There has been a lot of talk about in recent years about emphasizing STEM/STEAM in schools to help the U.S. fill jobs in many technical fields. One front in this effort is National Engineers Week, which in 2017 is February 19-25. Quoting from the website of DiscoverE, the organization behind it, National Engineers Week is intended to “Celebrate how engineers make a difference in our world; Increase public dialogue about the need for engineers; Bring engineering to life for kids, educators, and parents.” The site has activities, videos and other resources to help educators expose students to engineering concepts and career paths.
Teachers, eLibrary also has you covered. Of course, students and educators can search the database for lots of interesting articles, websites, transcripts and more relating to the various branches of engineering. But we also offer lots of Research Topics on specific topics in the sciences. They can be discovered while searching (look for drop-down lists while typing in search terms–many of the items here will return a Research Topic at the top of the results) and by browsing the list of all RTs. Here is a small sampling of relevant RTs to get your students started in exploring the impact of engineers and considering educational and career paths in the sciences:
Computer Software Engineer
Golden Gate Bridge
I-35W Bridge Collapse
One World Trade Center
Three Gorges Dam
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese military conducted a bombing raid on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In the wake of that attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on February 19, 1942, signed a document that would itself live in infamy and have lasting consequences for Japanese Americans. Executive Order 9066 authorized the Secretary of War to prescribe “military areas” which would confine persons who were restricted from living in or traveling to coastal areas, mainly the West Coast of the United States. As a result of the Order, the Western Defense Command began the removal and detention of tens of thousands of residents of Japanese ancestry, mostly from California. (Anti-Asian prejudices had existed in California since the mid-1800s, beginning with Chinese immigrants. Anti-Japanese movements became widespread in California around 1900.) Within six months after FDR signed the Order, some 122,000 men, women and children were involuntarily taken to assembly areas. They were then moved to and confined in relocation centers, or, internment camps, that were isolated, fenced-in behind barbed wire and under military guard.
Entire communities of Japanese Americans were uprooted. The U.S. government made no official charges against them, nor could they appeal their relocation and incarceration. Most of those relocated were American citizens. All lost their personal liberties; many lost their homes and personal property. There were ten relocation centers in remote areas in six western states and Arkansas: Heart Mountain, Wyoming; Tule Lake and Manzanar in California; Topaz in Utah; Poston and Gila River in Arizona; Granada in Colorado; Minidoka in Idaho, and Jerome and Rowher in Arkansas. For the next two-and-a-half years, Japanese Americans endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment. Several prisoners used the legal system to challenge the government’s actions. Fred Korematsu, a U.S. citizen of Japanese descent, refused to go to an internment camp and was arrested, tried and convicted in federal court. He challenged FDR’s executive order, and the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, where the Justices upheld Korematsu’s conviction on the grounds of military necessity.
These Japanese Americans were not allowed to return to their homes until January 2, 1945. In an ironic twist of history, during the course of World War II, only ten Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, and not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. In 1988, calling the internment of Japanese Americans “a grave wrong,” President Ronald Reagan signed a bill authorizing that each surviving internee receive a check for $20,000 along with an official apology from the United States government.
You can find out more about this important topic in U.S. history by searching eLibrary. Here are just a few related resources:
Today marks the 150th birthday of one of the most widely read American children’s authors, Laura Ingalls Wilder. Her autobiographical Little House on the Prairie series based on her childhood, published from 1932 to 1943, remains at the top of many a young child’s reading list today. In the pantheon of children’s literature, the Little House books are considered classics having sold over 60 million copies.
Laura Ingalls was born in the Big Woods of Wisconsin on February 7, 1867. She was the second child born to Charles and Caroline Ingalls. Her books reflect her life during the 1870s through 1880s as part of a pioneer family on the move. At the urging of her daughter, Rose, Laura wrote nine books chronicling the family’s moves from the Big Woods to Missouri, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa and finally South Dakota. Her first book, Little House in the Big Woods, was published in 1932 when Laura was 65.
The legacy of Laura Ingalls Wilder and the Little House books has been enduring. In 1954, to honor her enduring contribution to children’s literature, the American Library Association created the Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal. Originally awarded every three years to an American author or illustrator, it is now awarded annually to any author or illustrator whose books, like Laura’s, have made a lasting impact in the world of children’s literature. Perhaps more well known is the Little House on the Prairie television show that ran from 1974-1983. The show remains popular and continues in reruns today.
For this writer, Laura Ingalls Wilder and her books played an important part of my childhood and my adult life. I remember receiving the Little House box set for Christmas at age 9 from my grandparents. What an exciting gift for a young reader! My sister and I took turns reading the series. Little House was weekly viewing for my family and remained so for me in my college years. My roommate and I would set our schedules around Little House reruns.
Take some time to learn more about this influential writer who died at age 90 in 1957. Read or re-read the Little House books. See for yourself why the legacy and impact of Laura Ingalls Wilder endures.
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