On December 7, 1941, the Japanese military conducted a bombing raid on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In the wake of that attack, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, on February 19, 1942, signed a document that would itself live in infamy and have lasting consequences for Japanese Americans. Executive Order 9066 authorized the Secretary of War to prescribe “military areas” which would confine persons who were restricted from living in or traveling to coastal areas, mainly the West Coast of the United States. As a result of the Order, the Western Defense Command began the removal and detention of tens of thousands of residents of Japanese ancestry, mostly from California. (Anti-Asian prejudices had existed in California since the mid-1800s, beginning with Chinese immigrants. Anti-Japanese movements became widespread in California around 1900.) Within six months after FDR signed the Order, some 122,000 men, women and children were involuntarily taken to assembly areas. They were then moved to and confined in relocation centers, or, internment camps, that were isolated, fenced-in behind barbed wire and under military guard.
Entire communities of Japanese Americans were uprooted. The U.S. government made no official charges against them, nor could they appeal their relocation and incarceration. Most of those relocated were American citizens. All lost their personal liberties; many lost their homes and personal property. There were ten relocation centers in remote areas in six western states and Arkansas: Heart Mountain, Wyoming; Tule Lake and Manzanar in California; Topaz in Utah; Poston and Gila River in Arizona; Granada in Colorado; Minidoka in Idaho, and Jerome and Rowher in Arkansas. For the next two-and-a-half years, Japanese Americans endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment. Several prisoners used the legal system to challenge the government’s actions. Fred Korematsu, a U.S. citizen of Japanese descent, refused to go to an internment camp and was arrested, tried and convicted in federal court. He challenged FDR’s executive order, and the case went to the U.S. Supreme Court, where the Justices upheld Korematsu’s conviction on the grounds of military necessity.
These Japanese Americans were not allowed to return to their homes until January 2, 1945. In an ironic twist of history, during the course of World War II, only ten Americans were convicted of spying for Japan, and not one of them was of Japanese ancestry. In 1988, calling the internment of Japanese Americans “a grave wrong,” President Ronald Reagan signed a bill authorizing that each surviving internee receive a check for $20,000 along with an official apology from the United States government.
You can find out more about this important topic in U.S. history by searching eLibrary. Here are just a few related resources:
“On Friday noon, July the twentieth, 1714, the finest bridge in all Peru broke and precipitated five travelers into the gulf below.” That is the opening line of Thornton Wilder’s 1927 novel, “The Bridge of San Luis Rey.” Makes you want to read more, does it not? In Wilder’s story, five people were walking on a century-old Inca rope bridge, a bridge which many in Peru thought would never collapse. Well, collapse it did, killing the five people who were walking across. The incident was witnessed by a Brother Juniper, a Franciscan monk, who began to wonder if the accident occurred due to a divine plan, or if it was simply a random tragedy. His curiosity led him to investigate the lives of the five victims in order to prove that God intended those people to die together at that moment in time. After his research, he wrote an enormous book about the subject that was found to be heretical by the Church, resulting in both Brother Juniper and his book being burned in a town square. But, in a creative device used by Wilder, one copy of the monk’s book survived, which is supposedly the basis of the novel.
A year after “The Bridge of San Luis Rey” was published, Wilder wrote to a friend: “It seems to me that my books are about: what is the worst thing that the world can do to you, and what are the last resources one has to oppose it. In other words: when a human being is made to bear more than human beings can bear—what then? . . . The Bridge asked the question whether the intention that lies behind love was sufficient to justify the desperation of living.” What makes Wilder’s book the enduring novel it is has everything to do with the questions it poses about our purpose on Earth. It begins as a book about truth, and ends as a book about love. The end of the novel goes as follows: “But soon we shall die and all memory of those five will have left the earth, and we ourselves shall be loved for a while and forgotten. But the love will have been enough; all those impulses of love return to the love that made them. Even memory is not necessary for love. There is a land of the living and a land of the dead and the bridge is love, the only survival, the only meaning.”
The year 2017 marks the 90th anniversary of Thornton Wilder’s novel. Even after all this time, it is still read in many high schools, often assigned along with a reading of Wilder’s play “Our Town.” The novel has appeared on TIME Magazine’s list of the 100 best novels since 1923, and it ranked 37 on the Modern Library’s list of the 100 Greatest Novels of the 20th Century. I recommend blocking off a few hours this year (the novel is very short: I remember my brother’s copy was around 125 pages) to read Wilder’s excellent story. And while you are at it, please use eLibrary to brush up on Thornton Wilder and his other famous works.
Thornton Wilder was the winner of three Pulitzer Prizes: for his novel “The Bridge of San Luis Rey” (1928); for his play “Our Town” (1938) and for the play “The Skin of Our Teeth” (1942).
“The Bridge of San Luis Rey” has been filmed three times: in 1929, 1944 and in 1994. The latest version starred Robert De Niro, F. Murray Abraham, Kathy Bates and Harvey Keitel.
Talk about your twist endings! If you are an educator looking for ways to round out the ELA curriculum before the Christmas break, you might consider having your elementary/middle school class read O. Henry’s “The Gift of the Magi.” Full disclosure: I was aware of this short story for many years but never really took the time to read it until recently. As short stories go, this one is very short; it can be read in about 15 minutes or less.
O. Henry (aka William Sydney Porter) was known for unexpected endings to his stories. “The Gift of the Magi” provides a good example of comic irony. You all know the story: A young couple (Jim and Della Young) lives in a small apartment in the city. They each have one possession in which they take much pride: Jim, his grandfather’s pocket watch and Della her beautiful long, flowing hair. It’s Christmas Eve, and Della has only $1.87 to spend for her husband’s Christmas gift. She wishes to buy him a fob chain for his watch. To get the rest of the $21 she needs, Della cuts and sells her beautiful hair (evidently a common practice at the turn of the 20th century). She then buys the watch chain and hurries home.
If you haven’t guessed by now, Jim arrives home from work, stunned to see Della with her hair shorn in a chic Audrey Hepburn boy-cut! She presents him with the watch chain. Here comes the twist: Jim, surprised that she has cut her hair to buy him a gift, now gives his Christmas gift to her: a set of combs for her long hair. But, to get the money to buy the combs, Jim had to sell his watch. And, if you surmised that after this the couple grows bitter with the loss of their cherished belongings, drifts apart and that their marriage ends in a messy, public divorce…you would be WRONG!
O. Henry’s story was first published in The New York Sunday World in 1905 and later in book form as part of a short-story collection called “The Four Million” (1906). The tale has been adapted several times into plays and TV specials. One version that immediately jumps to mind is Disney’s “Once Upon a Christmas” (1999) in which Mickey and Mini Mouse play the lead roles. Another adaptation is a short-film anthology called “O. Henry’s Full House” (narrated by John Steinbeck), in which “The Gift of the Magi” is featured (1952). It can often be seen on Turner Classic Movies this time of year. Other than “A Christmas Carol” by Charles Dickens, this is probably one of the most-loved stories read during the holidays. The title, of course, gets its name from the Three Wise Men who presented the Christ child with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
Using eLibrary’s resources, teachers can find adaptations of “The Gift of the Magi” that would be perfect for an upper elementary or middle-school in-class play. If you want to teach your students about comic irony, or if you just want to present a heart-warming example of self-sacrificial love, take a few minutes of class time and read O. Henry’s classic tale.
American Literature (Research Topic)
Common Core ELA Grade 8: Literature (Research Topic)
Features of a Short Story (Hutchinson Encyclopedia)
The Gift of the Magi Classic Play (Scholastic Scope Magazine)
The Gift of the Magi Play (Scholastic Action Magazine)
The Gift of the Magi Adapted Play (Storyworks Magazine)
A Reading of O. Henry’s “The Gift of the Magi” (CBC Radio Website)
Using Irony (Website)
When it comes to Frank Capra’s “It’s a Wonderful Life,” people usually break down into two camps: They either love it or hate it. Critics typically have the same response – some praise it as an example of great American cinema, while others complain that it is sappy and overly sentimental. But one thing on which both fans and critics agree is the power of Jimmy Stewart’s performance as the decent, yet frustrated, George Bailey. As most of you know, the movie starts out as a comedy with flashbacks detailing important moments in Bailey’s life. Then, the film abruptly switches gears when George’s Building & Loan business suddenly loses $8,000. George, realizing he and his family will be financially ruined and that he might end up in prison, decides to kill himself.
Jimmy Stewart’s performance from this point on becomes quite interesting. No longer the dependable son and father and citizen, Stewart summons up the dark side of George Bailey….a darkness that he was feeling in his own life. During World War II, Stewart flew B-24 bombers for the 703rd Bomber Squadron. Stewart spent over 4 years in the military and 15 months of that time in dangerous bombing runs. According to the book “Mission: Jimmy Stewart and the Fight for Europe,” by Robert Matzen, Stewart suffered from PTSD and battle fatigue after he came home from the war. He was so thin and gaunt, that some of his friends were worried about him. Men who served with him said that Jimmy was not afraid of being shot down; he was more afraid of making a mistake and killing his own American troops down on the ground.
After the war, when Stewart went back to Hollywood, he was extremely anxious because he had not acted in a film in almost five years. Frank Capra (who was battling his own PTSD issues after filming documentaries of the war) approached Stewart with an idea for a movie. Stewart was reluctant, but agreed to do the project. Co-star Donna Reed said there were some tense moments during filming, and it was “not a happy set.” Stewart’s character was deaf in one ear, just as Stewart himself had suffered hearing loss due to the sound of the planes in long bombing missions. Behind the scenes, Stewart was questioning whether he should quit acting because it was such a superficial profession. It was then that Lionel Barrymore (Mr. Potter) said to him, “So, are you saying it’s more worthwhile to drop bombs on people than to entertain them?” After hearing this, Stewart threw himself fully into the role of George Bailey, giving one of the best performances of his career.
This Christmas season, being the 70th anniversary of the release of “It’s a Wonderful Life,” take time to watch the movie with a fresh set of eyes, paying close attention to Stewart’s performance, especially during the scenes where George Bailey seems at his most desperate. After the war, these same scenes may have been acted out in homes in small towns all over America.
Wonderful Life Trivia:
The film is based on the short story “The Greatest Gift” (1943) by Philip Van Doren Stern.
The character of Mr. Potter is likely based on Norman J. Gould, a Seneca Falls businessman who had control over the politicians and much of the economy of the town.
“It’s a Wonderful Life” was Capra’s favorite among films he directed, and he screened it for his family every Christmas.
The famous swimming pool scene was filmed in the gymnasium at Beverly Hills High School. Built in 1939, the pool is still in operation.
Jack London doesn’t make many reading lists these days, but in the early 1900s, he was one of the most-read and best-loved American authors of his time. He was born John Griffith Chaney in 1876 in San Francisco. The son of an unwed mother and a father who was never part of his life, Jack grew up hard. He quit school at the age of 14 to work in a factory. As a teen, he rode trains, pirated oysters, shoveled coal and served on a seal-hunting schooner in the Bering Sea. When he had free time, Jack soaked up all the novels and travel books he could find in the local library. His life as a writer began in 1893. After surviving a harrowing sea voyage, the 17-year-old London entered a writing contest and won first prize ($25) by writing about the event. Years later, he briefly attended the University of California at Berkeley but quit and headed to Canada and the gold rush in the Yukon. He moved back to California and began writing in earnest. London found international fame at the age of 27 with his novel “The Call of the Wild” (1903) and later with the publication of “White Fang” (1906).
While writing novels, short stories and travel tales, London also found time to cover the Russo-Japanese War for William Randolph Hearst’s newspapers. A colorful, controversial figure, he was often in the news for his adventurous exploits. Between 1900 and 1916, London wrote more than 50 fiction and non-fiction books, hundreds of short stories and magazine articles. London also supported many social issues of his day including women’s suffrage and workers’ rights. He was among the first writers to work with the movie industry. His novel “The Sea Wolf” (1904) became one of America’s first full-length silent motion pictures in 1907.
Jack London’s hard-driving lifestyle eventually caught up with him. His doctor urged him to change his work habits and his diet and ordered him to stop drinking. London refused to comply. He died on November 22, 1916, at the age of 40. On a personal note, if you read only one of Jack London’s books, I recommend “The Sea Wolf.” It is a great psychological thriller involving shipwrecks, rescues, and a mutiny. The novel is propelled by the brilliant, but savage, Wolf Larsen, captain of the doomed ship Ghost. If you can’t find time to read the novel, check out the 1941 film of the same name starring Edward G. Robinson as the title character. While not completely faithful to the novel, it is a very fine movie in its own right. And don’t forget to search eLibrary’s many literary resources!
November 22 Death Trivia:
Q: Jack London shares a death anniversary date with which U.S. President?
A. John F. Kennedy (November 22, 1963).
Q: Which two famous literary figures also died on November 22?
The story of Winnie-the-Pooh begins, as many great stories do, in 1914 at the beginning of the Great War. At the outbreak of World War I, Canadian troops from Winnipeg, Manitoba, were being transported by train to eastern Canada where they would then be shipped off to Europe to join the 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade. When the train stopped at White River, Ontario, Harry Colebourn, a lieutenant with the Royal Canadian Army Veterinary Corps, bought a small female black bear from a hunter who had killed the cub’s mother. Colebourn paid $20 for the cub and called her “Winnipeg” after his hometown, and then nick-named her “Winnie.” The cub became the brigade’s mascot and was shipped overseas to Britain with the Canadians. When the brigade received its orders to depart for the battlefields of France, Colebourn donated the bear to the London Zoo, where she lived until 1934.
Fast-forward to 1921 when British playwright A. A. Milne’s wife Daphne gave her son, Christopher Robin Milne, a stuffed bear she bought at Harrods Department Store. Christopher named the bear “Edward.” When Christopher was a bit older, his parents would take him to the London Zoo where “Winnie” became his favorite animal. The bear was so tame that Christopher was even allowed inside Winnie’s cage to feed her. Christopher then began to call his stuffed bear “Winnie.” Daphne purchased other stuffed animals for her son, which he named Piglet, Eeyore, Kanga, Roo and Tigger. Young Christopher invented voices and personalities for his stuffed toys which began to inspire his father to write poems and stories about the animals.
Technically, Christopher’s bear Edward made his first appearance in print in 1924 in a poem called “Teddy Bear,” but the first book written about “Winnie” was published on October 14, 1926, under the title “Winnie-the-Pooh.” It was followed in 1928 by “The House at Pooh Corner.” Milne’s collaboration with illustrator E. H. Shepard proved to be literary dynamite. The Pooh stories have sold well over 50 million copies in 25 languages.
*The name “Pooh” came not from a bear but from a real swan that lived near Milne’s county home. The swan appears in the poem “The Mirror” in the book “When We Were Very Young.”
*The characters of “Owl” and “Rabbit” were the only ones not inspired by Christopher Robin’s stuffed animals.
*Walt Disney brought the characters to film in 1966. Pooh is 2nd only to Mickey Mouse in the list of Disney’s most-loved characters.
*Ashdown Forest in Sussex, England, is the setting for the Hundred Acre Wood in the books.
*Christopher Robin’s original stuffed toys can be seen on permanent display at the New York Public Library’s branch on 5th Avenue and 42nd Street.
*The actor Sterling Holloway was the voice of Pooh in the original Disney films.
*Harry Colebourn served for 3 years in France, rising to the rank of Major. After the War, he returned to Winnipeg where he opened a private veterinary practice. He died in 1947. There are statues of both Colebourn and Winnie at the Winnipeg Zoo and the London Zoo.
Here we are, right in the middle of the 100th anniversary of World War I (1914-1918). Those of you who read these blogs may have noticed that eLibrary has been posting occasional entries relating to various topics of the “Great War.” I have been perusing many articles and books about the First World War and was searching around on Amazon for something else to read when I came across the book “Above the Dreamless Dead.” It is a unique mixture of poems from the Trench Poets of World War I and artwork from today’s finest cartoonists. The collection was edited by New York Times bestselling editor Chris Duffy. Thinking that this book would be a great resource to use in schools for teaching both history and poetry, I reached out to First Second Books for an interview with Mr. Duffy. Here are the questions and responses from that interview:
1. First of all, what made you want to compile a book of WWI poetry in graphic form?
2. Have you always been interested in WWI? [Mr. Duffy answered both questions at once]
Mr. Duffy: The idea came from editor Calista Brill at First Second. She called me up one day and said “We have this idea for a book to round out our season.” She described the idea of current cartoonists adapting the work of the Trench Poets as part of the centennial of the start of World War I. She asked if maybe I would edit it, but she had someone else in mind if I said no. I thought it was a pretty bad idea at first and I almost passed–I mean, what do we have in common today with men who lived in muddy trenches and watched their buddies die (and who died) a hundred years ago? Didn’t seem like a great fit with the cartoonists I know, who are for the most part sheltered from war. Then I started reading a lot of World War I poetry just to see. There’s a lot of it, the best of it is amazing, and all of it is compelling–and I started to really see how visual and narrative a lot of it was/ is. Then I started thinking about cartoonists who have spent their careers engaging with war and related themes–Pat Mills, Sarah Glidden, George Pratt, Peter Kuper, Garth Ennis, just to name a few. The project started seeming like a GREAT idea. In the end, I think the book is both about the poetry and about cartoonists of today engaging with the past and with a specific group of writers.
3. Why do you think that WWI has been a neglected topic in classrooms over the decades?
Mr. Duffy: I really don’t know, but I’m asked that a lot. I think people feel a distance there and want to bridge it. I highly recommend anyone read the work of the war poets and writers to bridge not only the distance between them and the past, but with them and soldiers in general.
4. What is your favorite WWI poem?
Mr. Duffy: “As the Team’s Head Brass” by Edward Thomas. It’s a home front poem. A soldier, probably Thomas, watches a ploughman at work and every time he passes by they exchange some words–about the war, the weather, the tree that fell that the ploughman can’t remove because all the younger men are at war. It’s an everyday scene but the poem is about life, death, alternate worlds, young love, death, and maybe a great tragedy to come. I believe it’s Seamus Heany’s favorite World War I poem, so I feel pretty good about my choice. It didn’t make it into the book; several cartoonists turned it down when offered. Maybe I should have pushed harder!
5. Who is your favorite WWI-era poet?
Mr. Duffy: Isaac Rosenberg, Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and Edward Thomas. But it’s hard to choose.
6. Are you yourself a graphic artist?
Mr. Duffy: I draw and make comics, but not professionally.
7. Any ideas on how educators could use Above the Dreamless Dead to get the discussion started with students concerning both poetry and WWI?
Mr. Duffy: I think it would be a good follow up to a unit on World War I–maybe the students could read one poem, talk about it, and then look at the adaptation and discuss the choices the cartoonist made. I also think it’s a good opportunity for students to research one poet–his life, war experience, and career. In one way or another World War I was a huge part of every one of the poet’s lives. In many cases it ended their life. But I’m not a teacher, so beware of these tossed-off suggestions!
8. Why do you think WWI inspired such an outpouring of poetry, whereas other wars do not seem to have generated such literary creativity, especially in poetic form?
Mr. Duffy: I don’t know. I postulate that poetry was something read and written by more people at that time than after. I have also read that this was the first generation of young British men to benefit from big education reforms–the average soldier would have been more literate than in previous wars. But I don’t know the whole story about why!
9. If you could go back in time and say something to one of these Trench poets, what would it be?
Mr. Duffy: That’s a little too ahistorical for me. We can’t go back in time. You have to read to learn about them.
10. With the tremendous amount of poetry produced during and after WWI, are there any more such anthologies in the works?
Mr. Duffy: I hope so! Not by me, but I think poetry is a rich topic for cartoonists.
(Thanks to Chris Duffy and a special thanks to Gina Gaglinao of First Second Books for setting up the interview.)
The best review I can give for the book is this: I was in my basement reading it when my son Josh, who has ZERO interest in poetry but likes comic books, stopped and asked what I was reading. I told him a little about the book and showed it to him. He said something like, “Hmmm. Interesting.” Later that evening, when I walked past his room, I saw him sitting in his “gaming chair” reading “Above the Dreamless Dead.”
If you wish to contact First Second Books to ask about ordering this book for your classroom or school library, please follow this link: First Second Books
During this 100th anniversary of World War I, please use the many resources available in ProQuest’s eLibrary to learn more about the War to End All Wars:
America and World War I (Research Topic)
British Poets of World War I (Research Topic)
Canada and World War I (Research Topic)
Canadian Poets of World War I (Research Topic)
Common Core ELA: History/Social Studies (Research Topic)
Common Core ELA: Reading Literature (Research Topic)
Poetry (Research Topic)
ProQuest Research Topic Guide: World War I (Research Topic)
Trench Warfare of World War I (Research Topic)
World War I: A History in Documents (Reference Book)
And just some of the Research Topics for WWI-era poets:
Everyone loves a good Western. Whether it be a novel, TV show or movie, the Western is a uniquely American genre. How many times in countless films has the lone gunfighter faced seemingly insurmountable odds and come out victorious in the end? The hero (or anti-hero) of the Western has become so woven into the fabric of the lore of the United States that it is often hard to separate fact from fiction. While there are many false stories floating around about Wild Bill Hickok (many of them invented by Wild Bill himself), it appears that James Butler Hickock was the real deal. In fact, the image of the lean, tall laconic gunfighter comes mostly from contemporary accounts and descriptions of Hickok. Born in Illinois in 1837, Hickok moved to Kansas Territory in the 1850s. During the Civil War, he fought for the Union in a vigilante group known as the Jayhawkers. It was there he met William Cody, who would later become Buffalo Bill. It was also during the War that he began to call himself William Hickok (or Haycock) instead of James. After the war, his reputation as a scout, lawman, gunfighter and gambler began to grow. He became marshal of Abilene, known to be one of the toughest towns in the West. His fame was solidified after a shootout in Nebraska during which he shot three men. A story about the gunfight was printed in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine under the title “Wild Bill Hickok.” The name stuck.
Hickok carried two Colt Model 1851 Navy revolvers in a red sash around his waist, their ivory handles turned forward for an underhand “twist draw.” His numerous shootouts in several western towns earned him the notoriety of being a man not to be trifled with. Wild Bill loved to gamble. It was also his habit to sit in a saloon with his back to the wall so that no one could sneak up on him from behind. On August 2, 1876, in Nuttal & Mann’s Saloon in Deadwood, Dakota Territory (now South Dakota), the only chair left at a table put Hickok’s back to the door. He asked Charles Rich to change seats with him. Rich refused, forcing Wild Bill to sit with his back exposed to the swinging doors of the bar. Not long afterwards, in walked Jack McCall who had lost heavily playing poker with Hickok the previous day. McCall pulled a pistol and shot Wild Bill in the head from just three feet away. The men were playing five-card draw at the time of the murder, and the cards that fell from Hickok’s hand were a pair of black aces and a pair of black eights, which have ever since been known as the “Dead Man’s Hand.”
Many of the Old West legends are just that…folklore, fabrications, exaggerations and tall tales. Just like this blog, some parts may be true, some not so much. Why don’t you do some research in eLibrary in these waning days of summer and discover more about the myths and realities of the American West.
If Woody Guthrie were still alive, he would be celebrating his 104th birthday on July 14th. But since he died in 1967, we’ll have to blow out the candles for him. While most people can only name one of Woody’s songs (“This Land is Your Land”), his musical legacy still resonates today. He was one of the most popular and influential singer/songwriters of the 20th century, and his music had an impact on a wide variety of artists including Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen and John Mellencamp, just to name a few. Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (yes, he was named after our 28th president) was born in Okemah, Oklahoma in 1912. Okemah was an oil boom town in the early 1920s. In the book “Pastures of Plenty,” Woody referred to Okema as “…one of the singingest, square dancingest, drinkingest, yellingest, preachingest, walkinest, talkingest, laughingest, cryingest, shootingest, fist fightingest, bleedingest, gamblingest, gun, club and razor carryingest of our ranch towns and farm towns because it blossomed out into one of our first oil boom towns.” And when the oil ran out, Woody felt the itch to hit the open road.
Woody moved to Texas, but during the Dust Bowl years, he, like many others, headed for California. Many of his songs reflect the experiences of thousands of Okies who migrated West looking for work during the Great Depression. Arriving years later in New York and known then as the “Oklahoma Cowboy,” Guthrie became a hero of the folk music community. As fortune would have it, folklorist Alan Lomax heard Woody perform and recorded many hours of songs and conversations for the Library of Congress. Around that time, Woody also recorded his album “Dust Bowl Ballads.” In 1952, Woody was diagnosed with Huntington’s Disease, a genetic disorder that had taken his mother’s life in 1930. As his condition worsened, he was hospitalized in various institutions. A very young Bob Dylan, who wanted to be Woody’s “greatest disciple,” learned of Guthrie’s whereabouts and visited him regularly in the hospital. Woody died at the age of 55 on October 3, 1967. By then, a folk music revival had begun, and his music had been introduced to a new, younger audience by the likes of Dylan, Pete Seeger, Ramblin’ Jack Elliott and others. His son, Arlo Guthrie, released his album “Alice’s Restaurant” in September 1967, just one month before Woody died.
Take some time this summer to revisit the life and legacy of Woody Guthrie using the many resources in eLibrary.
July 1 marks the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the Battle of the Somme during World War I. More than one million men on both sides were killed or injured in the four-and-a-half month campaign. The amount of bloodshed not only made the Somme the largest and bloodiest battle of World War I, but also one of the deadliest in all of history. Professor Gary Sheffield aptly stated, “The Battle of the Somme is etched into our minds as the epitome of all that is ghastly and tragic about war.”
Planned by Allied leaders, French marshal Joseph Joffre and British commander Douglas Haig, the Battle of the Somme was a string of attacks made against German trench lines in northern France. On the first day of battle, a few British leaders gave their soldiers footballs to kick around no man’s land as they advanced because they were so assured they would breach enemy lines. After the British laid down a barrage of fire on the Germans, the Germans in the interim readied their machine guns. As young, inexperienced Brits raced to German positions in broad daylight, thousands were killed in what for many was the first and only battle they would fight. Some were as young as age 15. On July 1 alone almost 20,000 Brits were killed out of nearly 60,000 casualties total. The French, on the other hand, were more experienced. They attacked with heavier artillery, rushing the Germans more quickly, thus suffering fewer casualties. The lesson learned that day was antiquated military tactics were no match for contemporary military weapons. A new invention, the tank, would even more emphasize this lesson when it was used for the first time September 15, 1916.
The Somme, which was to be a definitive gain for the Allies, became a battle of attrition. The battle ceased on November 18, 1916 despite the British and French not reaching their goal of breaking through German lines. In the end the Allies gained only six miles of the front.