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Teddy Roosevelt, Our National Monuments, and The Antiquities Act of 1906

On the 8th of June, 1906, President Teddy Roosevelt signed into law the Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities, more familiarly known as the Antiquities Act of 1906. The law gives the President of the United States the authority, by executive proclamation, to create national monuments from federally-owned public lands in order to protect important “historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest.” On September 24, 1906, almost four months after he signed the bill, Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first national monument in the United States. Devils Tower was the first of many that he would designate as national monuments under his presidency.

Since the first day of its signing, the law has been steeped in controversy pitting lawmakers, landowners, and resource extraction industries against environmentalists, conservationists, and federal land managers who have sought greater protections. Just last month President Trump ordered Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke to review national monuments created since 1996, which the President called “a massive federal land grab.”

With this review now taking place it’s a perfect time for science and social educators alike to explore with their students the history and background of the Antiquities Act and the lands the act is meant to protect. There are some basic question that teachers may want to ask their students:

  • What are national monuments and why do we need them?
  • What was the intent of the Antiquities Act of 1906?
  • What protections does the law afford, and what rights and responsibilities do landowners and lesees have inside national monument lands?
  • What scientific and cultural values do these national monuments have?

The current review by the Trump administration will look at around 24 national monuments designated since 1996, many of which reside in California, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada. You can learn more in eLibrary about our nation’s national monuments and the national parks that were originally designated as monuments. Not yet a subscriber to ProQuest products? Request a Free Trial here!

Here is a partial list of the national monuments under review by the Trump administration:

Bears Ear National Monument
Vermilion Cliffs
Canyons of the Ancients
Giant Sequoia National Monument
Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument

And here is a sample of national monuments and national parks that were originally designated as national monuments:

Chaco Canyon (New Mexico)
Mesa Verde National Park
(Colorado)
Petrified Forest National Park (Arizona)
Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (Arizona)
Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona)
Olympic National Park (Washington)
Muir Woods National Monument
Death Valley National Park (California)
Katmai National Park and Preserve (Alaska)
Crater Lake National Park (Oregon)
Capitol Reef National Park (Utah)

Are They Just Right? The Discovery of the TRAPPIST-1 Planetary System and Their ‘Goldilocks’ Potential

In the past several months science educators teaching astronomy and space exploration probably haven’t needed a lot to motivate science students who are endlessly fascinated with the possibility of life outside our own planet. The recent discovery of seven planets around TRAPPIST-1 (a star named for the Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope in Chile) has provided teachers new seeds to plant into the imagination of young minds interested in exoplanetary discovery. eLibrary can help feed that imagination with loads of resources.

In May 2016 researchers in Chile reported in the journal Nature the discovery of three planets with sizes and temperatures similar to Venus and Earth orbiting around an ultra-cool dwarf star just 40 light-years away in the Aquarius constellation. Earlier this year NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, along with the Very Large Telescope Array at Paranal in Chile, confirmed two of those planets, and then found five more exoplanets. Of the seven, three are presently believed to fall within the habitability zone (the ‘goldilocks’ zone), that area around a star in which rocky planets may hold liquid water and harbor life.

TRAPPIST-1, the star which these planets orbit, is classified as an ultra-cool dwarf. The star is so cool that water in liquid form could exist on planets that are even closer in orbit than Mercury is to our sun. In the years to come, if further observations reveal oxygen in any of the planet’s atmosphere, which could point to photosynthesis of plants, there is a good probability life can exist on these planets.

eLibrary has recent news information on this discovery as well as Research Topics on exoplanets, habitable planets, and general information on astronomy, cosmology, and space exploration that can help your students dive deeper into the questions of life existing elsewhere in our galaxy and beyond.

Here are some things scientists know thus far about TRAPPIST-1 and its planets:

  1. All seven of the TRAPPIST-1 planet’s orbit is closer than Mercury’s orbit around our sun.
  2. TRAPPIST-1 is much cooler and redder than the sun, and only slightly larger than Jupiter, which is about a tenth of the size of the sun.
  3. Because the planets are so close to TRAPPIST-1, all seven planets appear to be in a gravitational lock. That is, one side of each planet permanently faces the star, just as our moon is gravitationally locked and we only see one side of it.
  4. One year on the closest planet orbiting TRAPPIST-1 is equal to just 1.5 earth days. The farthest planet’s yearly orbit is equal to 18.8 earth days.
  5. If you were standing on one of the planets, each of the other planets would appear prominently in the sky, and at times appearing much larger than the moon does in our sky.
  6. TRAPPIST-1 is a mere 40 light-years away. In layman’s terms, that’s still 235 trillion miles away.

Oh No! The Dreaded Research Paper!

One of the biggest challenges for teachers is helping students overcome the fear of writing the research paper. Students will invariably ask: “What should I write about? How do I get started? Where do I find the information for my subject? It’s due when?!” Not only is it a challenge for students to get started and take the time to research their subject thoroughly, but also be under pressure with a deadline to finish it. It’s up to the teacher to help students navigate these obstacles and be successful with their research papers. ProQuest may be able to help you in this endeavor.

ProQuest’s eLibrary can help you guide your students through the research process from beginning to end with its Research Topic on Writing a Research Paper. There is a section on the elements and processes of writing with articles on critical thinking skills, note-taking, evaluating sources, and revising and editing their papers, along with other helpful articles.

One aspect of writing a research paper is using and citing reliable information sources. In the past several months fake news has become a topic of interest in national politics, but it can be a great teaching tool as part of your research instruction by showing students the difference of what is and is not reliable information. eLibrary also has a Research Topic on Fake News, with articles about the characteristics of fake news, evaluating sources, and how to recognize fake news when it is presented.

Another source for helping you guide your students through the research process is the ProQuest Research Companion, a self-guided tool that assists them in doing more effective research and helps you teach the fundamentals of finding and evaluating useful, reliable information. Research Companion can help your students wade through what is often an overwhelming amount of information by guiding their research effort. It is comprised of ten Learning Modules and five interactive tools arranged to automate the stages of the research process.

Also, be sure to check out Jeff Wyman’s blog How to Identify Fake News in 10 Steps and Christie Riegelhaupt’s blog Fake News: Teaching Students to Evaluate Sources.

Research can be hard for for first-time researchers, and even seasoned students can find it difficult wading through the process of gathering information, drafting, revising, editing, and finalizing their research papers. But maybe it can be less painful with a little help from ProQuest.

Pi Day and Albert Einstein

Today many educators, including math teachers, who are looking for ways to engage students’ minds can sweeten the learning curve by celebrating March 14 (3.14), Pi Day. Just like pi, there are infinite possibilities in motivating students in learning this mathematical constant (as long as they get to eat the examples, of course). Making pies, cookies, cakes, and other circular foods (don’t forget about pizza!) of different sizes can all play a part in motivating students in discovering the wonders of pi.

Students can double down on the learning experience because today is also the birthday of the world’s most celebrated scientist, Albert Einstein. And you can bet that Einstein was no stranger to pi. March 14 is a wonderful opportunity to enlighten your students about the endless fascination to the mathematical constant pi (3.14), and at the same time teach them about the extraordinary life of one of our greatest scientists. Be sure to click on the pi and Albert Einstein images below to open ProQuest Research Topics to learn more on both, or search eLibrary here.

Here are some facts about both Pi and Albert Einstein:

Pi

  • Pi is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (circumference divided by diameter).
  • Pi is an irrational number meaning that it cannot be written as a fraction and therefore has to be expressed as an infinite non-repeating decimal.
  • The Babylonians first calculated the area of a circle around 2,000 B.C.
  • Archimedes was the first to use the calculation of pi. He roughly calculated the area of a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem to find the areas of two regular polygons.
  • The earliest adoption of the Greek symbol for pi (π) was by William Jones.
  • The closest fraction representing pi is 22/7.
  • English singer-songwriter Kate Bush has a song called “Pi” in which she sings the number’s first 100 decimal places.

Albert Einstein

  • Einstein dropped out of high school and failed his first college entrance exam.
  • Adolph Hitler considered Einstein enemy number one. After Hitler’s ascendancy to Chancellor of Germany, he had his house sacked while he was in California. Einstein never returned to Germany.
  • Family members say Albert didn’t start to speak until the age of four.

  • Einstein was a member of the NAACP. When Einstein arrived in America he was shocked by how African Americans were treated. Before he moved to America he frequently corresponded with civil rights leader and founder of the NAACP, W.E.B. Dubois.
  • In less than one year in 1905, Einstein, an unknown scientist at the time, wrote and published his Annu mirabilis (The Miracle Year) papers. In these papers, he redefined the laws of physics and altered our views on space, time, mass, and energy, and laid the foundation for all modern physics we know today.
  • After Einstein’s death, Princeton University pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey performed Einstein’s autopsy. He removed his brain for research purposes but strangely kept it at his house for over 40 years. Some time later in the 1990s, he took the brain on a strange trip across America in the trunk of a Buick Skylark.

Five (or So) Facts About the U.S. Presidential Inauguration

This Friday the 58th U.S. Presidential Inauguration will take place at our nation’s capital when Donald Trump will be sworn in as the 45th president. Here are some interesting facts about the history of the ceremony and related events that you may not know.

Inaugural Address:

In his second inaugural address in 1793, George Washington spoke just 135 words, the shortest inaugural address ever given. Juxtapose that with the speech William Henry Harrison gave in 1841. Harrison delivered an 8,495-word speech lasting one hour and forty five minutes in the middle of a snowstorm without a hat or coat. Harrison’s presidency also is known as the shortest. He died a month after the inauguration from complications of pneumonia. Many believed that the long exposure to the elements during his lengthy speech contributed to his death.

Inaugural Celebrations:

The first inaugural ball was held the night after James Madison was sworn into office. A ticket to the ball? It cost just $4, which today would be worth around $60. Tickets to Donald Trump’s inaugural ball are estimated to range from $25,000 to $1,000,000.

As part of Abraham Lincoln’s 1865 presidential inauguration, African Americans were allowed to participate in the inaugural parade for the first time ever.

Inauguration Attendance:

Even though much of this past election was downright rancorous, Barack Obama and Hillary and Bill Clinton are expected to be in attendance at Donald Trump’s inaugural swearing in. At Andrew Jackson‘s first inauguration in 1829, outgoing president John Quincy Adams did not attend. The bitter campaign for president left a bad taste in both men. Jackson blamed offensive verbal attacks by Adams and his supporters for the death of his wife.

The first inauguration of Barack Obama in 2009 smashed the record for attendance (estimated at 1.8 million) previously held by Lyndon B. Johnson’s second inauguration attendance of 1.2 million in 1965.

Official Day of Inauguration:

Most presidential inaugurations from 1797 to 1933 (John Adams to Franklin Delano Roosevelt) were held on March 4. Since 1933, with a few exceptions, the ceremony has been held on January 20. One reason the inaugurations were held on March 4, prior to 1933, was to give precincts and states time to hand count and deliver all the votes, all with little technological help. The extended period between the election and the day of inauguration also meant an extended lame-duck session in Congress. So in 1933, with a more modern communications and systems of voting, Congress passed the 20th Amendment to establish the new inauguration day of January 20.

When January 20 falls on a Sunday, the official oath is still given on that day, but the ceremony, and another ceremonial oath, takes place on Monday the following day.

Location of the Inauguration:

Thomas Jefferson was the first president inaugurated in Washington, D.C. Jefferson was also the first to be inaugurated at the Capitol building in Washington. Most of the inaugurations were held outside on the eastern front of the building until after Jimmy Carter‘s presidency. Since 1981, beginning with Ronald Reagan‘s presidency, most ceremonies have been held on the spacious west side to accommodate more spectators.

There have been some exceptions to the standard location over the years. For Franklin D. Roosevelt’s final inauguration the ceremony was held in the White House. Roosevelt would die three months later, and Harry Truman would be sworn into office in the Cabinet Room of the White House.

The weather during Ronald Reagan’s second inauguration was so cold (minus 7 degrees) the event had to be moved indoors to the Capitol Rotunda, which was very much unlike his first inauguration in 1981 when the temperature hit 55 degrees.

Lyndon Baines Johnson owns the infamous title of being the only president ever to been sworn into office on board an airplane. Following John F. Kennedy‘s assassination in 1963, Johnson, accompanied by Jackie Kennedy and over 25 other dignitaries, squeezed into the stateroom of Air Force One. As the jet powered up, the oath of office was administered and Johnson became the 36th president. This event also marked the first and only time a woman has administered the presidential oath of office (Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes).

You can find out more about the U.S. presidential inaugurations by exploring eLibrary. Check out eLibrary’s Research Topics browse page or do a basic search of each president, and be sure to check out the page on Presidential Inaugurations.

Here are more resources:

ProQuest Research  Topics:
American Presidency
Presidential Inauguration
U.S. Congress
U.S. Constitution

Other Resources:
U.S. Capitol Overview (KRT Interactive, eLibrary)
U.S. Presidential Inaugurations: a Web Guide (Library of Congress)

 

Is This the Ugliest Campaign Ever? Not So Fast…

With the presidential election a mere one week away, the debates concluded, and with name-calling such as “Crooked Hillary” and “Deplorables” still being thrown around as often as a post-debate tweet, you might wonder whether this election holds the distinction of being the most contentious and dirtiest campaign ever. For many people living today, that answer would most certainly ring true. But as Lee Corso on College GameDay on ESPN would say, not so fast, my friend!

In the presidential election of 1800, founding fathers Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, who were good friends before running against each other, would have made men like Donald Trump gasp in shock at their electioneering tactics. Jefferson’s detractors accused him of being “a mean-spirited, low-lived fellow, the son of a half-breed Indian squaw, sired by a Virginia Mulatto father … raised wholly on hoe-cake made of coarse-ground Southern corn, bacon and hominy, with an occasional change of fricasseed bullfrog.” Jefferson was probably the first to hire a hatchet man (James Callendar) to do his dirty work, who characterized John Adams as a “hideous hermaphroditical character, which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman.” One Adams supporter suggested that if Jefferson was elected president “we would see our wives and daughters the victims of legal prostitution.”

The negative campaigning didn’t stop there. Equally appalling was the campaign of 1828 when proponents of John Quincy Adams called his opponent Andrew Jackson a cannibal and a murderer, accusing Jackson of summarily executing six militiamen during the Creek War of 1813. Conversely, Jackson supporters called Adams a pimp for Czar Alexander I while Adams was minister of Russia.

In the election of 1884 between Grover Cleveland and James Blaine, the mudslinging included an illegitimate child and anti-Catholicism sentiments. Democrats portrayed James Blaine as a liar, exclaiming “Blaine! Blaine! The Continental Liar from the State of Maine!” For their part, Republicans claimed in campaign posters and political cartoons that Cleveland had an illegitimate child. Cleveland later admitted that he was giving child support to a woman in Buffalo, New York.

It’s probably safe to say that after the election is over, whoever has won, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump probably won’t be best buddies. But it’s well worth noting that after the ruthless campaigning for the presidency in 1800, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson once again became good friends. Both died on July 4th, 1826 within hours of each other, and Adams’ last words were said to be “Thomas Jefferson survives.” In fact, Jefferson had died five hours earlier.

eLibrary has updated its U.S. Presidential Election, 2016 Research Topic with new up-to-date articles on the debates and polls, along with accompanying graphs.

Be sure to check out more of the past U.S. Presidential election Research Topics and other resources below.

Other related Research Topics:

Other Resources:
Presidential Elections
The Great American History Fact-Finder (Reference Book)

Elections
The Reader’s Companion to American History (Reference Book)

Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery Cross the Rocky Mountains

It must have been a huge relief for Lewis and Clark and the members of the Corps of Discovery to see a river where the current would be in their favor for once, pushing them forward to their destination to the Pacific Ocean. Instead of rowing and poling against the current like they had on the Missouri River for over 2,000 miles since leaving St. Louis, the expedition had now come upon the Clearwater River on the other side of the Rocky Mountains near present-day Orofino, Idaho. Until that moment, it had been anything but smooth sailing. And they had just crossed 200 miles of the worst terrain they had ever come across. It took them 53 days to cross the Continental Divide from the headwaters of the Missouri in Montana and over the Bitterroot Range. The last 11 days of this leg of the expedition they faced starvation, dehydration, and frost bite.

In early August of 1805 Meriwether Lewis and three other expedition members left William Clark and the main group on the Beaverhead River in Montana and headed west toward Lemhi Pass, a low grassy gap on the Continental Divide along the Montana-Idaho border, where they were in search of Sacagawea’s tribe, the Shonshone. Sacagawea was a member of the Lemhi band of the Shoshone, but had been kidnapped when she was 12 years old by a group from the Hidatsa tribe after a battle between the two tribes. Lewis and Clark decided to take her on as a guide because they knew that they could not get over the Rocky Mountains without the help of the Shoshone. She knew the  language and knew the lands that lay ahead of them.

When Lewis and his men made it to Lemhi Pass they were expecting to see a far-reaching plain to the west with a river flowing to the Pacific Ocean. What they saw instead was what they had been seeing since they had made the grueling portage around the Great Falls of the Missouri River: miles and miles of jagged, snow-covered peaks. The men’s spirits immediately sank because they knew that fall and winter weather were not far behind and the mountains seemed to go on endlessly. But they at least had accomplished one goal of the expedition: finding the western-most source of the Missouri River. Soon after going over the pass, Lewis and his men ran into members of the Shoshone and were escorted to their chief, Cameahwait, who by coincidence turned out to be Sacagawea’s brother. Soon after an initial negotiation for horses and other supplies, William Clark and the rest of the expedition arrived with Sacagawea. After a brief emotional reunion with her brother, she helped translate and negotiate for the horses. They were now ready to tackle the rest of the Rockies. But now came the hard part: crossing the Bitterroot Range.

On September 11, after camping for two days for much-needed downtime at an area now called Travelers Rest near present-day Missoula, Montana, they began to ascend the Bitterroot Range on the Lolo Trail with a Shoshone guide named Old Toby. And it was on this trail where they faced their biggest challenge of the expedition.

Snow began to fall six to eight inches at a time. Along with this hazard, much of the trail was filled with downfall, making the trek an arduous clambering over and ducking under timber in thigh-deep snow. Several times they lost the snow-covered trail and had to double back. Provisions were running short. Their horses became weaker each day. And still, at each mountain pass, when the view permitted, the mountains and snow-capped peaks seemed to never end. And each time, the men’s spirits sank even deeper. At times, starvation became an issue, at which point they had to kill and butcher a horse to survive. On September 16 William Clark noted in his journal: “Began to Snow about 3 hours before Day and Continued all day … by night we found it from 6 to 8 Inches deep … I have been wet and as cold in every part as I ever was in my life, indeed I was at one time fearfull my feet would freeze in the thin mockersons which I wore . . . men all wet cold and hungary. Killed a Second Colt which we all Suped hartily on and thought it fine meat.” Finally, 11 days after they left Travelers Rest, they emerged out of the Bitterroots into a wide plain near present-day Weippe, Idaho. They had made it out of the Rocky Mountain alive.

It was here they met the Nez Perce tribe, who turned out to be a warm and welcoming people, who fed, clothed, and nursed them back to health. The tribe also instructed them how to use fire to hollow out trees to make the canoes they would use to continue on their way on the Clearwater River.

On October 7th, 1805, two months after they had crossed over Lehmi Pass on the Continental Divide, Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery shoved off the banks of the Clearwater leaving their past troubles behind and with a strong current in their favor. Here they would proceed to the confluence with the Columbia River and on to the Pacific Ocean.

You can learn more about the expedition of the Lewis and Clark and Corps of Discovery with Research Topics, magazine articles, and book entries in eLibrary.

Here’s a start to your research:

Research Topics:

Continental Divide
Lewis and Clark and Corps of Discovery
Meriwether Lewis
Nez Perce
Rocky Mountains
Sacagawea
Shoshone
William Clark

Magazine Articles:

Breaking Trail With Lewis & Clark
Ski

Comparing Notes With Lewis and Clark
American Heritage

The Corps of Captain Lewis and Lieutenant Clark
American History

The Corps of Re-Discovery
American History

Lewis and Clark in Montana and Beyond
Wild West

Lewis and Clark National Historic Landmarks in Montana
Montana: The Magazine of Western History

Who Was Crazy Horse?

For a man like the great Oglala Lakota warrior Tashunkeh Witko, the man most people know as Crazy Horse, it seemed like an undignified way to die. On September 5th, 1877, four months after he and other Oglala leaders came to Fort Robinson at the Red Cloud Agency to surrender and negotiate a peaceful ending to the fighting, and just a year after the battle at the Little Bighorn, Crazy Horse was dead. While being arrested he was stabbed in the back by a soldier with a bayonet just outside a jail cell. How could this have happened to a man who rode fearlessly through a hail of arrows and gunfire in order to give his war parties time to regather themselves, a man who selflessly rescued fellow warriors from certain death on the battlefield? The U.S. Army called the stabbing an accident. Relatives, friends, and fellow tribe members of Crazy Horse thought differently.

Crazy Horse was born sometime around 1842 near Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of South Dakota to parents from two different Sioux tribes, his mother, Rattling Blanket Woman, a Miniconjou, and his father, Crazy Horse, an Oglala holy man. After Crazy Horse was born his mother began calling him Curly for his naturally light-colored, curly hair. When he was about twelve years old Curly witnessed the shooting of their great Lakota chief Conquering Bear by U.S. Army soldiers led Lieutenant John Grattan. The ensuing skirmish eventually left 29 U.S. Army soldiers dead, including Grattan, and later became known as the Grattan Massacre and the beginning of the Sioux Wars. As Curly grew into a young man, seeing that he was destined for great things, his father relinquished his own name to his son after the young warrior had revealed the vision he had of bullets and arrows vanishing in thin air before they struck him. His father took the name Worm, and with his new name, Curly had become a third generation Crazy Horse after his father and grandfather.

As tales of Crazy Horse’s heroics during battle grew, he quickly became a leader among his people who they willingly followed and trusted. But he was different from most Oglalas. He was shy, modest, never drew attention to himself, and many times seemed alone in his thoughts. Some considered him aloof. Unlike most Oglala warriors, informed by his vision, he almost never took scalps. He wore little or no face paint, never wore a war bonnet, and was content with wearing only one head feather. He did not dance and no one ever saw him sing, both activities that Lakotans loved. He never married his true love, Black Buffalo Woman. Her husband, No Water, shot Crazy Horse in the face when he found the two together in a tipi during a buffalo hunt. The shot glanced off the side of his face and left a permanent scar.

These are just some of the things we know about Crazy Horse, but much about his life remains vague at best. Only those who were close to him knew much of anything. Two of the most important resources that can give a researcher unique insights into the life of Crazy Horse come from two books, Mari Sandoz’s “Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas,” and John Neihardt’sBlack Elk Speaks.”

Growing up on the panhandle of present day Nebraska in the early 1900s, Mari Sandoz lived among the Oglala who often encamped near the Sandoz homestead. She befriended relatives and friends of Crazy Horse like He Dog, Short Bull, and Black Elk. Using her knowledge of the Lakota language, she artfully wove her tale of Crazy Horse by integrating the Lakota’s superb transcendental imagery into plain English. John Neihardt, an American poet and ethnographer, interviewed Black Elk, a Lakota medicine man and cousin of Crazy Horse. In “Black Elk Speaks,” through the translation of Black Elk’s son Ben Black Elk, Neihardt narrated Black Elk’s own stories and his visions as a medicine man, but also related many stories about Crazy Horse the warrior and leader of the Oglala Lakota.

eLibrary can also give you a step up in your research of the life of Crazy Horse. There are resources on the Plains Indians tribes, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, and the Great Sioux Wars from the 1850s to the 1890s (including the Battle of the Little Bighorn and Battle of the Rosebud). Below are those resources and more related to Crazy Horse and his people.

Research Topics:
* Battle of the Little Bighorn
* Battle of the Rosebud
* Crazy Horse
* Sioux Indians
* Sioux Wars

Magazine Articles:
* How Little Bighorn Was Won
* Lakotas Feared Fighters of the Plains
* Tragedy at Red Cloud Agency: The Surrender, Confinement, and Death of Crazy Horse
* ‘We Belong to the North’: The Flights of the Northern Indians From the White River Agencies, 1877-1878
* What Did Crazy Horse Look Like?

Book Articles:
* Crazy Horse (Tasunke Witko)
* Sioux
* Plains War

The General Election Begins

eLibrary continues to follow the election with frequent updates of its U.S. Presidential Election, 2016 Research Topic page. Currently, the page has a recap of the conventions and Research Topic profiles of the candidates and their running mates. It also includes the profiles of third-party candidacies of Libertarian Gary Johnson and Green Party candidate Jill Stein. The page also has a section with up-to-date polling articles, including a link to the aggregate polling website RealClear Politics, a section on campaign issues and political analysis, and a section on campaign finance and influence. As the debates unfold, we will provide analytical articles of the debates from different viewpoints, along with continued updates of the polls before and after the debates.

Below are more Research Topic resources for your research and discovery:

Prelude to Little Bighorn: Battle of the Rosebud

In the end, it may not have mattered for Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. On June 16, 1876, 30 miles southeast of, and eight days before the Battle of the Little Bighorn, Brigadier General George Crook and his column crossed over the Tongue River, a river that Crazy Horse warned Crook not to cross. They were en route to Rosebud Creek where he suspected that Sitting Bull and his village were encamped. At Rosebud Creek, Crook and his men encountered and fought to a stalemate Crazy Horse and his Sioux/Cheyenne confederacy. Afterwards, instead of marching northward to join Custer at the Little Bighorn, Crook’s troops retired to their Goose Creek encampment. Could Crook and his troops have made the difference at the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Could they have turned the corner of that battle and won the day for Custer and his men? And just what were these battles, which were part of the larger Sioux Wars, all about, anyway?

In 1868, the U.S. government signed a treaty (Sioux Treaty of 1868) which acknowledged that the Indians owned approximately 125,000 square miles of land from the Black Hills in western South Dakota down to northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. These lands were the historic buffalo hunting grounds of the Sioux, Cheyenne, and other Plains Indians. In the treaty, the government promised protection against any encroachment by the white settlers of the United States. But after gold was found in the Black Hills by an expedition led by Custer in 1874 miners began flooding the region with no regard to the treaty. The government decided to renegotiate the treaty, but the Sioux and Cheyenne would have none of it. The Sioux had heard these promises before. When they refused to renegotiate, the U.S. Army was given orders to force them onto an even smaller reservation.

Fast forward to June 17, 1876. Crook was given orders to engage the Indians at Rosebud Creek, and then move north to join the convergent forces of General Alfred Terry (with Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer), and Colonel John Gibbon to force the Indians onto a reservation. Crook believed wrongly that Sitting Bull’s village was camped out on the Rosebud, and he had orders to engage and destroy it. If he had come three days earlier, he would have encountered the village where they had engaged in a Sun Dance, and where it was reported that Sitting Bull had a vision of “soldiers falling into his camp like grasshoppers from the sky.” Instead, they encountered Crazy Horse and a smaller, but still large band of Sioux and Cheyenne. The battle lasted for six hours. When the fighting was over, it was at best a Pyrrhic victory for Crook and his men; they retained the ground on which they fought, but they had to retreat back to their encampment at Goose Creek near present-day Sheridan, Wyoming to tend to their wounded and give rest to a battle-worn column. Crook claimed victory but military historians now view the battle as a victory for Crazy Horse and his men, and a prelude to the triumph at Little Bighorn a week later. Could Crook and his men have tipped the scales at Little Bighorn had they not retreated to Goose Creek after the battle on Rosebud Creek? Of the three federal forces, Crook’s was the largest with over 1,000 men. But would it have made a difference?

You can explore this question and more in eLibrary. Research topics such as the Great Sioux Wars, including Battle of the Rosebud and Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the United States Westward expansion, which contributed to the disputes in the Plains and the Black Hills. There are ProQuest Research Topics on Battle of the Rosebud, Crazy Horse, and General George Crook, as well as a host of other topics and resources associated with the battle listed below.

Research Topics:

Battle of the Little Bighorn
Battle of the Rosebud
Crazy Horse
George Armstrong Custer
George Crook
Sioux Wars
Sitting Bull

Related Browse Topics:

American Expansionism
Great Sioux War/Black Hills War

Native American History