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Teaching Activity: Tracing the Effects of Slavery

Frear’s Silk Dept (circa 1882), via Wikimedia Commons

This activity comes from the CultureGrams Teaching Activities PDF, which features more than 70 activities to help teachers make the most of our country, state, and province reports.

Grade level: 9–12

Objective: Students will understand the geographical scope of the slave trade. They will be able to trace some of the lingering socioeconomic and cultural effects of slavery across the world. See the Teaching Activites PDF for Common Core and other national curriculum standards met by this activity.

Time requirement

Preparation: 30 minutes

Monument of the Four Moors, Livorno, Italy, via Wikimedia Commons

In-class: 50 minutes, less if students read selections at home

Materials

CultureGrams World Edition

Helpful maps from UNESCO

Understanding Slavery Initiative (timelines, maps, paintings, and images of artifacts)

Instructions

  1. Explain to the students how, besides being a general atrocity and a personal tragedy for the millions of Africans who were sold as slaves, the African slave trade has had a major effect on the history of the world. Slavery has influenced the historical development and current cultural and socioeconomic conditions of many nations: African nations from which individuals were captured and nations in the Americas to which Africans were brought as
  2. Divide the class in half to form two groups. Have each group read from these selections in class or at home:
Group One Group Two
United States (History) Angola (History)
Antigua and Barbuda (History, Arts, Holidays) Botswana (Religion)
Barbados (History, Language, Arts) Malawi (History)
Haiti (History, Population) Mozambique (History)
St. Lucia (History, Population, Holidays) Senegal (History)
St. Kitts and Nevis (History, Flag description) Sierra Leone (History, Population, Religion)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (History, Holidays)
  1. Ask the students in Group Two to discuss the circumstances surrounding the African side of the slave trade, in addition to any long-lasting effects it has had on populations or
  2. Ask the students in Group One to discuss the history and cultural impact of slavery in those countries. What did it take to end slavery? What types of economies were created as a result of the slave trade? How did it influence the arts and languages of the Americas?
  3. Have each group prepare a short presentation to share their findings with the other group.
  4. As a class, analyze the Country and Development Data for all of the countries. Which statistics might slavery have influenced and how?

Carving of slave caravan, alternate, Lake Malawi Museum ,by Tim Cowley via Wikimedia Commons

Extension activity

For background information, read the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) report on modern-day slavery (summary of facts below).

  • Almost 21 million people are victims of forced labour – 11.4 million women and girls and 9.5 million men and boys.
  • Almost 19 million victims are exploited by private individuals or enterprises and over 2 million by the state or rebel groups.
  • Of those exploited by individuals or enterprises, 4.5 million are victims of forced sexual exploitation.
  • Forced labour in the private economy generates US$ 150 billion in illegal profits per year.
  • Domestic work, agriculture, construction, manufacturing and entertainment are among the sectors most concerned.
  • Migrant workers and indigenous people are particularly vulnerable to forced labour.

Explain to the class that slavery still exists and briefly discuss the various forms it takes (i.e. child and bonded laborers, sex slaves, domestic servants, agricultural workers, etc.). For homework, instruct students to look up a current event dealing with a form of modern-day slavery, then do a write-up that summarizes the event and analyzes the laws and circumstances that result in continued slavery; they might also compare the effects of modern-day slavery with those of the African slave trade.

In this article, students can put a face to modern descendants of the African slave trade and hear their perspectives.

Passover 2017: Chag Sameach!

Jews Celebrating Passover. Lubok, XIXth century (image 1850), via Wikimedia Commons.

Jewish communities around the world are currently observing Passover (Pesach, in Hebrew)–one of the most important events in the Jewish calendar. So wish your Jewish friends chag sameach (happy festival)! Passover is a week-long celebration that takes place each year in early Spring, this year taking place between April 10-18th. It commemorates the emancipation of the Israelites from ancient Egypt and God’s sparing or “passing over” Jewish homes during the final plague in Egypt. According to the Biblical story, the Israelites had to leave Egypt in such a hurry that they didn’t have time to wait for their bread to rise, taking with them only unleavened bread. As a reminder of the Israelites’ exodus out of Egypt, Jews today refrain from eating anything containing leaven (chametz) during Passover, eating unleavened products such as matzah (a type of flatbread) instead. Jews also eat matzah with bitter herbs such as horseradish, in remembrance of the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. Learn about Passover traditions in the CultureGrams Israel report.

Test your knowledge of Judaism with this quiz

CultureGrams: New Interviews for Afghanistan and Comoros!

Blue Mosque – Shrine of Hazrat Ali, by Lukaszcom, via Wikimedia Commons

We’ve recently added interviews from two Afghan women to the Afghanistan country report. Hear first-hand what life is like in Afghanistan for Farah and Zohal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We’ve also added interviews to the Comoros report! Take a look at them to get a feel for life in different areas in the Comoros Islands among different age groups and socioeconomic backgrounds.Fatima, female, age 29

Patrice, male, age 43

Nourou, female, age 9

 

CultureGrams — New Kids Country: Mauritius

The CultureGrams editors are excited to announce a new Kids edition country report!

The new Mauritius report includes detailed information on the history, culture, language, food, and daily life of this country.

Here are some interesting Did You Knows about Mauritius:

  • The dodo—a flightless bird native to Mauritius—became extinct in the 17th century. The dodo only existed in Mauritius.
  • Mauritius Island is around 8 million years old, which is rather young in geological time.
  • Several different types of giant tortoise used to live in Mauritius but have now become extinct.
  • Mauritian ships are sometimes attacked by modern-day pirates in the Indian Ocean; Mauritius began holding court trials for pirates in 2013.

Read about Mauritian séga music and explore the fascinating history of Mauritius in this new report.

CultureGrams — New Kids Country: Comoros

The CultureGrams editors are excited to announce a new Kids edition country report!

comoros-flag

Flag of Comoros via CultureGrams

The new Comoros report includes detailed information on the history, culture, language, food, and daily life of this country.

Here are some interesting Did You Knows about Comoros:

  • Comoros is one of the top two producers of vanilla in the world (second to Madagascar).
  • The name Comoros came from the Arabic word qamar, meaning “moon”
  • Arab slave traders used Comoros as a base for transporting African slaves as early as the 16th century.
  • Comoros has one of the largest populations of the coelacanth fish, once called a “living fossil” because it was thought to have become extinct more than 65 million years ago, until it was rediscovered in the 20th century.

Read about local Comorian games and sports, as well as musical instruments and styles, all in this colorful new report.

CultureGrams — New Kids Country: Equatorial Guinea

The CultureGrams editors are excited to announce a new Kids edition country report!

640px-flag_of_equatorial_guinea-svg

Flag of Equatorial Guinea

The new Equatorial Guinea report includes detailed information on the history, culture, language, food, and daily life of this country.

Here are some interesting Did You Knows about Equatorial Guinea:

  • In the Fang culture, many pregnant women take herbal baths to protect themselves from evil spirits.
  • Equatorial Guinea is the only country in Africa with Spanish as an official language.
  • When Portuguese explorers first found the island of Bioko, they named it Formosa, which means “beautiful.”
  • The islands of Bioko and Annobón are actually located closer to other countries like Cameroon and São Tomé and Príncipe than they are to Equatorial Guinea’s mainland.

Find out about popular foods and snacks in Equatorial Guinea, read about Bonko Dancers, and discover what life is like as a kid, all in this colorful new report.

CultureGrams: Eid al-Adha

livestock.EID

Livestock bazaar in Kashgar (Xinjiang, China) ahead of Eid al-Adha, by Keith Tan (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) via Flickr

Today marks the beginning of Eid al-Adha celebrations for over 1.5 billion Muslims worldwide. The holiday, meaning “Festival of the Sacrifice”, commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son and is celebrated during the twelfth month of the lunar calendar. People visit friends and family and exchange gifts. Many families slaughter a sheep on this day as a symbol of the story of Abraham. Tens of millions of animals are sacrificed around the world in the first two days of the celebration. Families who cannot afford their own animal may join other families and pool their money together to buy an animal. The meat from the sacrifice is shared with family and friends, but a portion must also be reserved for the poor.

rice.vendor.EID

A street vendor makes food at the livestock bazaar in Kashgar (Xinjiang, China) ahead of Eid al-Adha, by Keith Tan (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) via Flickr

The holiday takes place following the the Muslim Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca. In Saudi Arabia, the government declares a 12-day holiday that includes the days of the Hajj and the following Eid al-Adha holiday. Traditionally, Eid al-Adha festivities lasted about 4 days. Today, celebrations range in length between different countries–ranging from as little as 3 days (in the Philippines), 9 days (in Gulf states) and 12 days (Saudi Arabia). Learn more about some of the different countries that celebrate Eid al-Adha with CultureGrams: see Egypt, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Albania, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.

CultureGrams: One Religion, Many Practices

UzbekistanMosque.header

Mir-e Arab Mosque, Bukhara, Uzbekistan by Robert Wilson (CC BY-ND 2.0) via Flickr

Did you know that there are over 1.5 billion Muslims worldwide? Across this massive group, there is a considerable range of religious practice and doctrinal interpretation. Catholicism and Buddhism have similarly large and diverse populations whose adherents can be found in very different geographic regions and societies. To better understand how religious belief impacts people, students need to understand that most religions have a range of beliefs and practices. The following activity from the CultureGrams Activities PDF helps students to explore differences within one religion across different cultures.

mosque.isfahan

Mosque in Isfahan, Iran by Babak Farrokhi (CC BY 2.0) via Flickr

Teaching Activity: One Religion, Many Practices

Time requirement
Preparation: 10 minutes
In-class : 1 hour and 30 minutes, two different days

Research and Writing
Grade level: 6–8; can be modified for other age groups
Objective: Students will compare the practice of a single religion across multiple countries and interviews.

Materials: CultureGrams Online Edition—Interviews

Instructions
1. Have students read three interviews with people who practice the same religion. Some options are Islam (Qosimov: Uzbekistan, Djiba: Senegal, and Joud: Jordan), Catholicism (Javier: Bolivia, Trina: Costa Rica, and Petrosse: Mozambique), and Buddhism (Sai: Cambodia, Dawa: Nepal, and Chhun: Cambodia).
2. What differences do students notice in the way the interviewees practice their religion? Differences may be found in how often a person attends worship services, how important they consider religion in their life, ways they worship, and holidays they celebrate.
3. Now have students read the Religion section of each interviewee’s country in the World Edition report. What do these sections say about the religion? How does the information in the report compare to the information in the interviewees’ answers? How does the practice of the religion vary between countries?
4. Have students write a short essay on their observations about the ways a single religion varies in different areas and between individual observers of that religion. They may also speculate on why this could be.

*See pg. 55-56 of the CultureGrams Teaching Activities PDF  to view the education standards that are targeted in this activity.

mosque.bahrain

Mosque in Bahrain by Denise Krebs (CC BY 2.0) via Fickr

Hibiscus Tea: an African Tradition

Enjoy a good cup of hibiscus tea? You’re not alone. This tart, red herbal tea can be found all over Africa–from Côte d’Ivoire to Sudan. The hibiscus plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa), commonly known as roselle, has been used for hundreds of years in beverages and traditional medicines in various regions of Africa.

Dried Hibiscus in Aswan souk (Photo via Wikimedia Commons)

In North Africa and the Sahel region, hibiscus tea is popular as a hot or cold drink, and is usually sweetened with sugar. Hibiscus iced tea, known as karkadé in Egypt, is sold by numerous street vendors in Cairo. In Sudan, hibiscus tea is commonly served to guests. However, Sudanese generally prefer to soak the hibiscus flowers in cold water for two days, rather than boil them (as in Egypt), a method that some believe makes the tea more flavorful.

In West Africa, hibiscus tea (known as bissap) is popular in countries like Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal–especially iced and sweetened with sugar. Here, as in Egypt, bissap is a popular drink sold by street vendors; on the beaches in Senegal and Côte d’Ivoire, vendors sell the drink iced or frozen, and often in plastic bags. In West Africa, bissap is often flavored with fresh mint leaves or ginger. Below is a recipe for bissap from our Côte d’Ivoire country report. Enjoy!

Jus de Bissap

Karkadeh, Kerma, Sudan (Photo via Wikimedia Commons)

Hibiscus Juice/Iced Tea

Ingredients

1 cup dried red hibiscus flowers

1.5 liters water

A few fresh mint leaves (optional)

1 cup super-fine sugar 

1 teaspoon vanilla extract

Directions

  1. Rinse the hibiscus flowers and put them in a pot with the water.
  2. Cover the pot, bring the water to a boil, and let simmer for 10 minutes.
  3. Remove the liquid from the heat and add the mint leaves. Let steep for 10 minutes.
  4. Pour through a strainer into another bowl to separate the flowers and mint from the liquid.
  5. Add the sugar and vanilla extract and mix with a wooden spoon.
  6. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours and serve cold.

Hint

This drink may also be flavored with a combination of 1 teaspoon vanilla and 1 teaspoon orange blossom extract, or with a combination of 1 teaspoon vanilla and 1 teaspoon strawberry extract. The mint leaves are optional but are commonly added.

Mother’s Day Around the World

“Mother and baby ducks” [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons

Do you know about any Mother’s Day traditions in other countries? This article gives some interesting facts about Mother’s Day in ten different countries. For example, did you know that in Japan, the carnation is also the main flower associated with Mother’s Day? Or that in the UK, Mother’s Day developed out of a tradition called Mothering Sunday that was celebrated as early as the 16th century? Or that many countries in the Arab world (including Syria, Egypt, and Lebanon) celebrate Mother’s Day on March 21st, at the beginning of the spring equinox? Other traditions are sobering: in France, in the years following WWI, the government awarded medals to French mothers of large families–as a way of honoring them and their contribution to rebuilding France’s population following the war.  

While many countries celebrate Mother’s Day in ways similar to the US–including family gatherings, presents, and flowers, many celebrate mothers in other ways. For example, in Ethiopia, people honor mothers in the three-day Antrosht festival, which follows the fall rainy season. During this festival, communities gather to enjoy large meals and to sing and dance. In India, a festival called Durga Puja celebrates the Hindu goddess Durga, and lasts for several days. Explore different cultures and families in this National Geographic photo gallery of mothers and children around the world. Below is a bit more information about different Mother’s Day traditions from CultureGrams.

“Flag map of Thailand” [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons

Thailand

Several holidays celebrate the monarchy of Thailand. Celebrations include a national holiday for Queen Sirikit; her birthday (August 12th) is referred to as Mother’s Day, since the queen is revered as the mother of all Thai people.  Mother’s Day in Thailand honors both Queen Sirikit and Thai mothers. During the month of August, the streets and city centers are decorated with lights and feature large portraits of Queen Sirikit. The holiday is filled with parades and ceremonies. On Mother’s Day, people decorate their homes with flags, lights, and portraits of the queen. White jasmine flowers are common decorations as a symbol of maternal love and are a common Mother’s Day gift. Learn more about Thai culture and holidays with CultureGrams.

El Salvador

Mother’s Day is an important holiday for Salvadorans. Some schools host special breakfasts or brunches for mothers and, even before Mother’s Day was declared a state holiday in 2016, many schools dismissed their students to allow them to spend the day with their mothers. Mothers and grandmothers are given gifts and treated to one or more meals throughout the day. A popular way to recognize mothers is with a mariachi band hired to play and sing a few songs at the woman’s home, either in the morning or at night, during a dinner or party for the mother. Learn more about El Salvador with CultureGrams.

Flag-map_of_El_Salvador

“Flag-map of El Salvador” [public domain] via Wikimedia Commons