Flower

#Friyay Tweets from Educators

As editors for ProQuest’s Guided Research products, we are super thankful for the educators who post on Twitter displaying how they are using Guided Research products in their classrooms and school libraries! Thank you so much for sharing and providing us feedback so our educational tools can help students experience better research, better learning and better insights.

Here are some recent highlights. Keep sharing. Happy Friday!

 

 

 

 

 


ProQuest Guided Research products equip students to learn information literacy skills. Research made easy! Free trials are available.

SIRS Winter 2018 Source Title Update

From August 2017 through January 2018, these publications have been removed from SIRS Issues Researcher:

  • Jane’s Intelligence Review
  • Jane’s Intelligence Weekly
  • IHS Jane’s Islamic Affairs Analyst
  • HIS Jane’s Terrorism and Insurgency Monitor
  • Army Times (2007-present)
  • Air Force Times (1999-present)

During the same period, The Shooting Industry was added to SIRS Issues Researcher and Common Sense Media was added to SIRS Discoverer.

Feb. 17 Is National Random Acts of Kindness Day

Any amount of time spent watching, reading or listening to the news can make you really appreciate the value of random acts of kindness. Whether the gesture is big or small, random acts of kindness offer lots of benefits to both those who give and those who receive. There’s happiness to be found in sharing a book, creating and hiding painted rocks or volunteering to watch the class pet. It doesn’t matter what the act of kindness is, just as long as it comes from the heart.

Editors Jaclyn Rosansky and Kim Carpenter collaborate on their experiences with acts of kindness. Jaclyn discusses finding painted rocks and Kim recounts her time visiting family in Kentucky and her niece’s time with a class pet. February 17 is National Random Acts of Kindness Day so this post has been updated with ways to pay it forward during the year.

Hidden Gems

The concept of painting and hiding rocks for others to find is a great and creative way to bring a smile to someone’s day. I became curious about this activity after venturing to Mullins Park (Coral Springs, FL). Painted rocks kept popping up left and right. On the back of each rock was a request to share it with a rock painting group on Facebook. Upon checking the online group, photo after photo of painted rock each with its own personality and flair appeared. At the top of the page was a message for the group to find some rocks, paint them and hide them and then share photos or leave hints of where to find them.

Painted rocks found at Primrose Park in Wellington, FL (on left) and Mullins Park in Coral Springs, FL (on right). (Photos by Jen Oms and Jaclyn Rosansky)

And so, my own rock painting began. I began painting rocks in my spare time and sharing information with family members. It was agreed that painting rocks could be therapeutic. Some of my coworkers also joined in and we inspired each other with our designs and vibrant color choices. For some of us, painting rocks has been inspired by the holiday season. Trees, benches, and boulders became favorite hiding spots for the rocks. Hearing a burst of excitement when someone finds your creation is the best part just because it made that person’s day a little bit brighter.

Rock painting precedes social media. One woman who was hiding her creations at Mullins Park said she had been painting and hiding rocks since the 1970s. But the movement has really gained momentum over time. There are numerous online groups dedicated to sharing rocks that have been painted, hidden and found to make getting involved easier than ever.

Visit The Kindness Rocks Project to view painted rocks within the online community for inspiration and share your own painted rocks.

–Jaclyn Rosansky

Little Free Library

Each year I visit my family in Kentucky. During my trip last year, I enjoyed a day at Smother’s Park in downtown Owensboro. It’s a large park with a playground overlooking the Ohio River. I noticed a swarm of people around a small wooden box full of books. It was a Little Free Library. Parents were selecting books and the children were sitting around it in a circle reading to each other. I thought it was such a wonderful idea so I Googled it and found them all over the country. I’ve even noticed painted rocks hiding inside the library boxes in my community.

Holiday Park little library in Fort Lauderdale, FL (on left) and Owensboro, Kentucky little library (on right) (Photos by Jaclyn Rosansky and Kim Carpenter)

It’s important to incorporate random acts of kindness in your own community. Exchanging books with your neighbors is a great way to start. With the Little Free Libraries, you can share your appreciation for reading and promote literacy in your own neighborhood. They can be placed anywhere.

Explore Little Free Library for more information and building instructions. Check out the map to see if you have one nearby, or build and register your very own for your community.

Class Pet

A classroom pet is another great way to share kindness. Having students take home the class pet during the weekend is also a great way to teach respect and responsibility. Hermit crabs, hamsters or bearded dragons are all great choices.

A perfect example is a preschool my 5-year-old niece Addison attends. She brought home her classroom hermit crabs named Butterfly and Star and she even explained to me how to care for them.

Addison Cohen with hermit crabs Butterfly and Star (Photo by Kim Carpenter)

Check out Pets in the Classroom for a list of benefits, download lesson plans for incorporating pets into your classroom and you can even apply for their grant program.

–Kim Carpenter

Volunteering and Paying it Forward

Since February 17 is National Random Acts of Kindness Day, we’ve compiled some ideas for volunteering and paying it forward throughout the year.

Volunteer Match is a tool to help connect people to good causes. Simply enter your location and choose a volunteer category. Use the filters to narrow down the areas that interest you.

Animals can always use lots of love. Volunteering with The Animal Humane Society is a great way to offer in-shelter support or at-home foster care. There are also ways for those under 16 years of age to get involved from community service, special projects, student volunteering and educational programs.

Pay It Forward Foundation is a wonderful way to give back with random acts of kindness to people, animals and the planet. You have options of giving a donation, volunteering alone or with friends or just registering and spreading the word by sharing a link on social media.

Reach Out & Read has plenty of opportunities to help from donating books, becoming a volunteer reader or even creating art that can be featured in one of the program’s literacy-themed waiting rooms. You can find programs in your area by using their drop-down menu on the site.

Random Acts of Kindness helps inspire creative ways to give back. Check out all the inspiring ideas for spreading kindness or even submit your own idea. There’s also a link for educators which includes free K-12 lesson plans.

Whether in your community or classroom, kindness is contagious, so remember to pass it on!

A Name You Should Know: Robert Smalls

Frederick Douglass. Sojourner Truth. Martin Luther King Jr. Rosa Parks. These names are in the pantheon of African American heroes. Each year during Black History Month their names are at the fore of many celebrations. Robert Smalls. His name is not well-known, or even known at all, but his contribution to black history is extraordinary and fascinating.

Robert Smalls Research Topic via ProQuest eLibrary

Robert Smalls went from slave to naval captain to U.S. congressman by age 36. The story to his fame began in Charleston, South Carolina 13 months after the attack on Fort Sumter. Smalls was entrusted with piloting the CSS Planter, a Confederate military transport ship. He gained the confidence of the ship’s owners, and in doing so he began to plan an escape to the Union blockade about seven miles in the distance. On the early morning of May 13, 1862, Smalls stole the Planter after its three officers went ashore for the night leaving Smalls and his slave crew alone. Donning the captain’s straw hat and employing the signals he had memorized, Smalls steered the Planter to another wharf where his family and the families of the other crew were waiting. Sailing past five fortified Confederate posts, Smalls’ plan succeeded as the Planter made it to the Union without incident. At just 23 years old, Robert Smalls delivered 16 men and women to freedom and gave critical Confederate defense information to the Union. A reporter hailed it “one of the most daring and heroic adventures” of the Civil War.

Robert Smalls’ story did not end there. Hailed a hero, he was able to lobby the federal government for the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union war effort and reportedly recruited almost 5,000 men himself. He lead the Planter in 17 battles and eventually became her captain. He was the highest-ranking African American officer in the Union Navy. After the war, he became a leader during Reconstruction in the Republican Party. He was elected to the South Carolina legislature and later to the U.S. House of Representatives five times. One of his key initiatives was ensuring free education for all children.

Whether known for their activism or heroism, here are a few other names you should know. Honor them by sharing their stories with others not only during Black History Month but throughout the year.

Bessie Coleman

Hiram Revels

Dorothy Height

Nat Love

Daisy Bates

Guion Bluford

ProQuest’s eLibrary is an excellent resource for students wanting to learn more about African American history and achievement. The new eLibrary platform makes searching easy with its visually appealing Common Assignments and Subject trees. Also, make sure to look at the Editor’s Picks which are focused on Research Topics related to Black History Month. This new feature will change frequently so check back to see what’s new.

Don’t have eLibrary? Request a free trial.

Teaching Activity: Designing Olympic Medals

PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Medals

PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Medals [via Korea.net / Korean Culture and Information Service / accessed through Wikimedia Commons]

Did you know that the design of the Olympic medals changes with each Olympics? The designs are meant to showcase the culture and traditions of the host country. For example, the design for the front of this year’s PyeongChang medals has the Olympic rings set on a background that is meant to look like the texture of tree trunks, symbolizing history and determination. The side and back of the medals incorporate the Korean alphabet, and the ribbons are made of a traditional Korean fabric known as gapsa.[1]

Help your students get excited about the PyeongChang Olympics with the following teaching activity from CultureGrams. This activity will help students think critically about what goes into choosing the design of Olympic medals. Though the activity is geared for grades 6-8, it can easily be adjusted to suit any grade level. You can also find additional teaching activities about the Olympics on CultureGrams.

Designing Olympic Medals

Grade level

6–8

 Objective

Students will design an Olympic medal based on what they learn about the culture of a country.

 Common Core State Standards Initiative

Anchor Standards for Reading: ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies (Grades 6–8): ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

Anchor Standards for Reading: ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies (Grades 6–8): ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

Anchor Standards for Reading: ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies (Grades 6–8): ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7 Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

Anchor Standards for Reading: ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

  • Literacy in History/Social Studies (Grades 6–8): ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8 Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

Anchor Standards for Reading: ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

Time requirement

Preparation: 15 minutes

In-class: 60 minutes

Materials

CultureGrams World Edition

Art materials—construction paper, scissors, glue, pens, etc.

Instructions

  1. Ask each student to choose a country and read its CultureGrams report. Students should make note of things that set the country apart and that citizens of the country would be especially proud of.
  2. Explain to the students that the design of the Olympic medals combines the history of the Olympic Games with the culture of the host country. Each host country designs the medal that hundreds of athletes will compete for that year. Have students look at the design and background information for medals from some past Winter or Summer Olympic Games. Hold a class discussion about which elements of culture the designs incorporate and why.
  3. Ask students to design an Olympic medal for the country they researched. They must incorporate aspects of the country’s culture as well as images from ancient Greek culture and the history of the Olympic Games. You may wish to determine the format (paper, poster, digital design, etc.) or leave it open to the students.
  4. In small groups or in front of the class, have students explain why they chose to include each element of their medal.

Extension activity

Each country that hosts the Olympics designs a logo for the games. The logo may feature a symbol of the country or it may simply try to capture the excitement of the games. While each country adds their own elements to the logo, almost all logos incorporate the Olympic rings, one of the most recognizable symbols of the games. Have the students research past Olympic logos on the Internet and choose the one they think reflects the best blend of Olympic history and the host country’s culture, according to that country’s CultureGrams report. Students should be prepared to defend their choices with specific details.

Visit CultureGrams to find more teaching activities!

  1. “PyeongChang 2018 Medals.” International Olympic Committee, www.olympic.org/pyeongchang-2018-medals.

Olympic History: Boycotts, Protests, Scandals and Violence

The practice of sport is a human right. Every individual must have the possibility of
practicing sport, without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, which
requires mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play
.”

–4th Fundamental Principle of Olympism, from The Olympic Charter

Sochi Olympic Rings at Olympic Park
by Atos International [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The XXIII Olympic Winter Games open tomorrow in PyeongChang, Republic of Korea. The Olympics provide a platform for nations from around the world to unite in celebrating athleticism and sports achievement. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) aims to promote sports competition and education free of any discrimination, and theoretically at least, all political disputes are set aside during the Games. Despite the IOC’s goals for international peace during the Games, there have been many disruptive and controversial incidents that have been associated with the Olympics throughout history. Below are some notable events that have challenged the Olympic ideal of promoting international peace and understanding.

Discrimination

Women were not permitted to compete in the first modern Olympics, held in Athens, Greece in 1896. Four years later, at the 1900 Paris Olympics, female athletes made their debut, but only 22 women out of a total of 997 athletes competed in just five sports. Since then, more sports and events were gradually introduced that allowed women to participate. Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Brunei had never had a female athlete compete in the Olympics until the 2012 Summer Games in Sydney, when all three countries included women in their delegations for the first time.

Jesse Owens via Library of Congress [public domain]

The 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany offered Chancellor Adolf Hitler a chance to promote his claims of Aryan racial superiority. Jewish athletes were banned from Germany’s Olympic team, and African American Jesse Owens became the first U.S. track and field athlete to win four gold medals at a single Olympics. Owens was only one of 18 African American athletes on the U.S. team that year, and despite winning 14 medals (eight of them gold), they received little recognition when they returned home. While white Olympians were invited to the White House to be congratulated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the same honor was not extended to the black athletes.

Bribery

Frank Joklik, head of the organizing committee for the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City, Utah, resigned after admitting payments were made to members of the International Olympic Committee during the bidding process to select the location of the Games. The bribery allegations also resulted in the expulsion of six IOC members. The Games were still held in Salt Lake City, but under new chief executive Mitt Romney.

Doping

At the 2000 Summer Games in Sydney, Australia, U.S track and field athlete Marion Jones became the first woman to win five track and field medals at a single Olympics—three gold and two bronze. In 2007, after an investigation, the IOC stripped Jones of all of her medals after she admitted that she had used a banned substance.

14 Russian athletes who competed in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia were disqualified for violating anti-doping rules and stripped of their medals (ten total, including four golds). 19 Russian athletes have been banned from the Games for life as a result of an IOC investigation into allegations of widespread doping among Russian competitors. The scandal resulted in Russia’s Olympic team being barred from the 2018 Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea.

Protests

Olympic History at SJSU (San Jose, CA 2009)
by mksfly [CC BY-SA 2.0] via Foter.com

While many Olympic celebrations have been the target of protests, one of the most iconic took place in the 1968 Summer Games in Mexico City. After two U.S. sprinters earned medals in the 200-yard dash, they decided to take a stand for human rights. Tommie Smith (gold) and John Carlos (bronze) mounted the medals podium wearing no shoes and black socks to symbolize poverty among black Americans, beads and scarves to protest lynching, and Olympic Project for Human Rights badges. Then each bowed their heads, raised a black-gloved fist and stood silently as their national anthem played. Amid international outrage and condemnation within the U.S., the two Americans were suspended from the U.S. team, given 48 hours to leave Mexico, and were later stripped of their medals. In 2005, the San Jose State University alumni were honored when a bronze statue was erected on the campus, and in 2016, they were invited to a reception at the White House.

Boycotts

During the 1972 Summer Games in Munich, Germany, the U.S. men’s basketball team entered the gold medal game against the Soviet Union with seven gold medals with a perfect 63-0 record in Olympic competition.  With the U.S. leading as time expired, the officials granted an improper timeout to the Soviets and put three seconds back on the clock, allowing the Soviet team to score another basket and win the game 51-50. The team boycotted the medal ceremony, refusing to accept their silver medals. Nearly 50 years later and despite numerous invitations to the athletes to accept them over the years, the medals remain in a vault in Lausanne, Switzerland.

President Jimmy Carter announced that the U.S. would boycott the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow, Russia to protest the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan. 64 other nations also refused to attend. In retaliation, the Soviet Union boycotted the 1984 Olympic Games held in Los Angeles, joined by 14 other Communist bloc socialist countries. Other boycotts of the games occurred for various political reasons in 1908 (London), 1936 (Berlin), 1956 (Melbourne), 1964 (Tokyo) and 1976 (Montreal).

Violence

On September 5, during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, a group of Palestinian terrorists stormed the Olympic Village apartment of the Israeli team, killing two and taking nine others hostage. A failed rescue attempt at the Munich airport resulted in the death of all of the hostages, along with five of the terrorists and one West German policeman.

Plaque in front of the Israeli athletes’ quarters commemorating the victims of the Munich massacre. The inscription, in German and Hebrew, reads: The team of the State of Israel lived in this building during the 20th Olympic Summer Games from 21 August to 5 September 1972. On 5 September, [list of victims] died a violent death.
Honor to their memory.
by High Contrast (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 DE], via Wikimedia Commons

On July 27, during the first week of the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, a homemade pipe bomb exploded during a late-night concert at Atlanta’s Centennial Olympic Park. There were two deaths, and at least 111 others were injured. The bomber, Eric Robert Rudolph, wasn’t captured until 2003, despite an intensive 5-year nationwide manhunt and a $1,000,000 reward.

Scandals

On January 6, 1994, just one month before the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, figure skater and Olympic contender Nancy Kerrigan was leaving the ice after practice for the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Detroit. A mysterious man attacked and struck above her right knee, forcing her to withdraw from the competition due to the injury. Tonya Harding was crowned the 1994 Champion, and just five days later, the attack on Kerrigan was linked to Harding’s ex-husband, Jeff Gillooly. A media frenzy ensued, with countless reporters following and harassing Harding constantly.  Kerrigan went on to win a silver medal in the 1994 games, while Harding finished in eighth place, was later stripped of her national championship and permanently banned from all amateur skating competitions.

Possibly the biggest Olympic scandal ever was in the news recently. Three USA Gymnastics board members resigned after former Michigan State University and USA Gymnastics team doctor Larry Nassar pled guilty in November 2017 to multiple counts of molesting female athletes, many of them children. Several Olympic gold medalists were among the 156 victims who gave impact statements at his pre-sentencing hearing. Nassar was sentenced to 40 to 175 years in prison on January 24. MSU president Lou Anna Simon also resigned in the wake of the scandal. The U.S. Olympic Committee then called for the resignations of the entire 21-member board of USA Gymnastics.

* * *

The upcoming Games in PyeongChang have already stirred controversy. North Korea’s decision to send a delegation to the Olympics, and the agreement by the two Koreas to compete with a combined women’s ice hockey team have sparked protests in Seoul where activists and defectors from North Korea have burned and ripped photos of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un. North Korea also pulled out of a planned joint Olympic cultural event and appears to be planning a huge military parade on the day before the opening ceremonies.

Subscribe via email to Share This and never miss a post.

Johannes Gutenberg and His Printing Press

Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468)

Johannes Gutenberg Research Topic via ProQuest’s eLibrary

Johannes Gutenberg invented the Internet. Well, okay, he didn’t, but he might as well have. His invention of the mechanical printing press around 1440 was no less revolutionary than the advent of the World Wide Web. Whether you are reading this blog online or if you printed it out and are reading hard copy, you can thank Gutenberg.

Before Gutenberg, what printing there was in the Western world was used mainly for copying images, reproducing such things as playing cards or creating designs on cloth. All books were laboriously hand made by either monks or professional copyists.

Born in Mainz, Germany, around the year 1400, he began at an early age to study metalworking in his father’s goldsmith shop. While not the first to invent moveable type (the Chinese may have done that), he was the first to perfect the system of mechanical moving type and integrate it into a printing press. His mechanical moveable type ushered in the printing revolution. It helped bring about an era of mass communication that influenced the Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution.

The Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible [Public Domain via Library of Congress]

Gutenberg’s crowning achievement is the iconic Gutenberg Bible, printed in Mainz around 1450. Also called the 42-line Bible because each page has 42 lines of text, it was the first major book printed using his new printing press. An edition of the Latin Vulgate, his version of the Bible is known for its artistic and aesthetic beauty. Since its initial publication, 49 copies have survived. The Library of Congress and the national libraries of Britain and France have complete, near-perfect copies.

Gutenberg Taking the First Proof

Gutenberg Taking the First Proof, Engraving via Library of Congress [Public Domain]

Gutenberg’s experiments made printing practical, and his method of using type endured almost unchanged for five centuries. This month marks the 550th anniversary of the death of Johannes Gutenberg (February 3, 1468). While attempts have been made in recent decades to debunk Gutenberg’s monumental achievement, the opinions of Gutenberg’s contemporaries, along with the substantial historical evidence in his favor, will serve to keep him regarded as one of the most influential figures in world history.

Now would be a good time for History and ELA teachers and STEM programs to encourage students to use eLibrary to research Gutenberg’s revolutionary invention.

Don’t have elibrary? Request a free trial.

New West Bank and Gaza Interviews on CultureGrams

CultureGrams recently added three new faces to the Interviews collection. So far, CultureGrams features over 400 interviews that represent the perspectives and life experiences of people from all around the world. Interview responses are edited for clarity and comprehension but CultureGrams editors try to preserve the original voice and thoughts of the interviewees. They are a reflection of how those individuals see their lives and the countries and cultures they live in. Over the years interviewees have shared with us their happiest moments, greatest hopes, and their biggest challenges in life.

Here are just a few of those insights from our most recent additions:

Sami, age 17, Gaza City, Gaza

“As a citizen living in Gaza, which has been under siege for the last 10 years, my biggest worry is that I can’t travel abroad to study. I am a diligent student and I have the potential to achieve my dreams, but being restricted here in Gaza will be a barrier. Even if I finish my studies in Gaza, I will not be able to find work easily here. We are almost 2 million people in a closed area with limited resources. I am so worried about all the opportunities that could be available for guys my age but that we can’t access because we are in Gaza.”

 

Ahlam, age 37, Ramallah, West Bank

“Back then, girls’ education was a luxury in my town. My grandmother took her [my mother] out of school after she finished her fourth year. Despite that, my mother could read very well, but her writing skills were not as good as her reading skills. Gauging by her exceptional logical and mathematical intelligence, I always believed that my mother would have become a great scholar if she could have finished her schooling and gone to college. When I finished high school, my family’s financial situation was so fragile that my chance to start college could have been delayed. I remember how my mother was so eager and tried really hard to lend me money to register at college and did the same with the rest of my siblings. She made our education her priority. My parents even supported my sisters with their college expenses even after they got married.”

 

Mohamed, age 63, Gaza City, Gaza

“The most significant event was the marriage of my oldest son. I couldn’t expect how I’d feel as a father on that day. His wedding was outside Gaza, and because of the siege and the fact that we couldn’t leave Gaza easily, the marriage ceremony had been postponed several times, and then finally we decided to hold the ceremony even if we couldn’t attend. My oldest son would have been alone without any member of his family. That would have been tragic. But thanks to God, one week before the wedding, the Egyptian border was opened and I was able to cross after spending two days at the border. I attended the wedding with my daughter, as she works with the USAID organization and can be granted a permit to travel. My wife and the rest of the family joined us through online video streaming.”

Be sure to keep your eyes peeled for more interviews coming in 2018, which we will highlight here on the blog. Until then, discover more interviews from countries all over the world in the CultureGrams Interviews gallery!

Don’t have CultureGrams? Request a free trial.

Anniversary of the Greensboro, North Carolina Sit-Ins

Greensboro Sit-Ins, Feb. 1960

Greensboro Sit-Ins Research Topic via ProQuest’s eLibrary

February is Black History Month, and Social Studies teachers can begin the month-long commemoration by letting students use eLibrary to research the Greensboro, North Carolina Sit-Ins, which began February 1, 1960.

Just after 4 o’clock in the afternoon, four college freshmen from the all-black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical (A&T) College entered the Woolworth’s department store in downtown Greensboro. They made a few small purchases and then sat down at the store’s Whites-only lunch counter and ordered coffee. The waitress said: “We don’t serve Negroes here.” One of the students replied: “I beg to differ,” pointing out that the store accepted their money at the cash register when they bought school supplies. The young men were asked to leave, but they remained seated until the store closed at 5:30. Ezell Blair Jr., Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil and David Richmond, who became known as the “Greensboro Four,” ignited a movement that would change the country.

Students on Day 2 of the Sit-In

Students from North Carolina A&T College [Photo Public Domain via the Library of Congress]

The next day, more than 20 black students joined the sit-in. As some white customers heckled them and the lunch counter staff refused them service, the students read books and studied or sat quietly. On day four, some 300 people took part in the sit-in. A week later, the sit-in movement spread to other cities in North Carolina and then to other major cities in the South.

The movement, while not the first sit-in, gained much media attention and showed that young African-Americans could peacefully protest against segregation and have a real impact.

In July 1960, Woolworth’s manager Clarence Harris asked several black employees to change out of their work clothes and order a meal at the counter, thus ending the store’s Whites-only policy.

The Original Woolworth's Lunch Counter

The Original Woolworth’s Lunch Counter [Photo via the Smithsonian Natural Museum of American History]

While there is no longer a Woolworth’s in downtown Greensboro, in 2010, fifty years after the first sit-in, the site of the former store reopened as the International Civil Rights Center & Museum.

Students can jump-start their Black History Month class projects by looking at eLibrary’s Research Topics. Here is just a brief sample:

Civil Rights (U.S.)

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Freedom Rides

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

When searching eLibrary, make use of our Editors’ Picks feature, which will be focusing on Black History Month topics during February.

Don’t have elibrary? Request a free trial.

CultureGrams Has National Geographic Photos!

CultureGrams is pleased to announce that we now include a selection of National Geographic photos in our photo galleries. These photos provide new perspectives on the countries and cultures of the world via some of the most talented photographers in the business. National Geographic, which is the official publication of the National Geographic Society, began as a scholarly journal when the first issue was published in 1888. But starting in the first decade of the 20th century, with the inclusion of full-page photographs for the first time, the magazine evolved to become a publication much more focused on visual content. And now National Geographic is widely recognized for its stunning photography of people and places around the world. So we are thrilled to include these images in our product. We started out by adding photos to about two dozen country collections in 2017, but we’ll be adding more photos each year. Check them out!

 

Japan Photo Gallery via CultureGrams

Ainu Woman via CultureGrams Photo Gallery